The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor ,Perumahan The Foresta Bogor Barat. Living In Harmony With Nature,bogor barat regency, dijual perumahan bogor, dramaga bogor, harga tanah bogor, jual rumah bogor barat, pakuan regency bogor, perum di bogor, perumahan bogor barat, perumahan di bogor dekat stasiun, perumahan mutiara cileungsi, perumahan pakuan regency bogor, rumah dijual bogor, http://perumahantheforestabogor.blogspot.com

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

Untuk informasi lebih lengkap silahkan hubungi : Bp Iswandy Hp.0877 7010 0061 Email : is_wandhi@yahoo.com

Home – The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

– Akses jalan raya, terdepan, bebas macet dan bebas banjir

– Dilengkapi dengan club house di dalam clusternya (satu-satunya perumahan yang mempunyai club house ).

– Perumahan yang masih dekat dengan linkungan alam, masih banyak pohon, udara segar yang kita tidak dapatkan lingkungan seperti ini di Jakarta.

– The Foresta meupakan hunian terbaru di kota Bogor dan merupakan proyek terbaru dari Developer PT. Batavia Bumi Jaya.Alamat : Jl. Raya Cifor Bubulak Bogor

Luas area : 3,2 ha

Tipe Bangunan : Dua lantaiJumlah Ruang : Kamar Mandi : 2 : Kamar Tidur : 2; Kamar pembantu : 1 Carport : 1

Tipe Mahogany : Luas Tanah : 84 m2; Luas Bangunan : 75 m2 lebar 6 m x panjang 14 m

Tipe Teak Wood : Luas Tanah : 98 m2; Luas Bangunan : 85 m2 lebar 7 m x panjang 14 m

Jumlah rumah : 162 unit

Jumlah ruko : 16 unit

Developer : PT. Batavia Bumi Jaya

Untuk informasi lebih lengkap silahkan hubungi :

Bp Iswandy

Hp.0877 70100061

Email : is_wandhi@yahoo.com

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

Diposkan oleh Erfin Syafrizal

Fasilitas Internal

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

Fasilitas Eksternal

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

Tipe Mahogany

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

Tipe Teak Wood

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

Ruko

The Foresta Bogor

The Foresta Bogor

Siteplan dan Spesifikasi

Untuk informasi lebih lengkap silahkan hubungi : Bp Iswandy Hp.0877 7010 0061

Email : is_wandhi@yahoo.com

Share This

Google Maps

Lokasi

Harga dan Cara bayar

Webblog Creator

Erfin Syafrizal 081256161720 / Ph 0251 4777 182

Muslim Selamatkan Yahudi Pada PD II

Muslim Selamatkan Yahudi Pada PD II

Adalah Norman Gershman, seorang fotografer yang mengumpulkan foto-foto para saksi hidup.

Sabtu, 23 Oktober 2010, 20:49 WIB

Umi Kalsum, Denny Armandhanu

Pemukiman Yahudi (AP Photo/Bernat Armangue)

VIVAnews – Sejak lama, Islam dan Yahudi identik dengan pertikaian dan peperangan yang tak berkesudahan. Namun, sebuah pameran foto di Amerika Serikat menguak sebuah kisah kemanusiaan yang terlupakan tentang bagaimana Islam Albania menyelamatkan kaum Yahudi dari kejaran Nazi Jerman.

Pameran yang digelar di sinagog Emanuel di St. Louis, Missouri, pada 21 Oktober – 1 Desember 2001 ini menggambarkan bagaimana para muslim Albania mempertaruhkan nyawanya dan nyawa keluarganya untuk menampung para Yahudi yang menjadi buronan Nazi Jerman pada Perang Dunia II. Dikabarkan muslim Albania telah menyelamatkan lebih dari 2.000 Yahudi kala itu.

Adalah Norman Gershman, seorang fotografer yang mengumpulkan foto-foto para saksi hidup serta lokasi tempat peristiwa itu terjadi. Keinginan untuk membuat sebuah pameran yang menggambarkan kebaikanlah yang membuat Gershman memutuskan untuk mengangkat Albania sebagai objeknya. Sejak tahun 2003 Gershman mulai risetnya dengan mengambil foto dan melakukan wawancara.

Gershman menjelaskan bahwa pada tahun 1939 Albania diduduki oleh Italia di bawah kepemimpinan Benito Mussolini pada tahun 1939. Lalu diambil alih Jerman pada tahun 1943. Albania adalah negara dengan 70 persen penduduknya muslim, sementara itu hanya terdapat 200 Yahudi di negara tersebut. Selama masa penjajahan Jerman, Yahudi di Albania bertambah 10 kali lipat. Hal ini dikarenakan Yahudi dari Polandia, Yugoslavia, Yunani dan Italia merangsek masuk ke Albania untuk mencari perlindungan.

“Saya memilih fokus terhadap Muslim di pameran ini, karena siapa yang pernah mendengar Muslim menyelamatkan Yahudi?” ujar Gershman seperti dilansir dari laman STLtoday.

Pada salah satu foto pameran tersebut diceritakan seorang Yahudi menyusui anak seorang wanita yang memberinya perlindungan. Sebelumnya, wanita Yahudi itu meminta izin terlebih dulu kepada ibu si anak.

“Yahudi merupakan umat Tuhan juga,” jawab wanita Albania tersebut.

Kepala sekte Bektashi, sebuah sekte Islam di Albania dengan tujuh juta pengikut, menceritakan bahwa perdana menteri Albania memberikan perintah rahasia kepada rakyatnya untuk melindungi Yahudi.

“Semua anak-anak Yahudi akan tidur dengan anak-anakmu, mereka akan makan makanan yang sama dan hidup sebagai satu keluarga,” ujar lelaki itu menirukan perintah PM-nya.

Salah satu foto dari 30 foto yang dipamerkan menampilkan seorang nenek, Lime Balla, yang menceritakan kejadian kala itu. Balla mengisahkan kepada Gershman ketika 17 orang Yahudi datang ke desanya untuk minta perlindungan.

“Kami membagi mereka di antara para penduduk desa. Kami sangat miskin, tidak ada meja makan, tapi kami tidak membolehkan mereka untuk membayar makanan dan perlindungan. Kami menanam sayur untuk makan. Selama 15 bulan, kami pakaikan mereka pakaian petani agar tidak dikenali. Bahkan polisi kami tahu masalah ini,” kisahnya.

Ketulusan Muslim Albania untuk melindungi Yahudi, ujar seorang cendekiawan muslim dari Yayasan Islam St. Louis, Ghazala Hayat, adalah karena mereka menjunjung tinggi nilai yang disebut ‘Besa’.

Hayat mengatakan bahwa Besa yang dalam bahasa Indonesia berarti memegang janji adalah salah satu bagian dari ajaran dan budaya Islam. Besa, menurutnya, adalah kode kuno yang memerintahkan seseorang untuk melindungi orang lain yang meminta pertolongan walaupun harus mengorbankan nyawanya sendiri.

“Saat ini di Albania, Besa adalah hukum tertinggi yang tidak membedakan perbedaan agama, keturunan dan suku,” ujarnya.
• VIVAnews

http://dunia.vivanews.com/news/read/184560-muslim-selamatkan-yahudi-pada-pd-ii

============

Norman H. Gershman photo exhibit of Albanian Muslims who helped Jews during the Holocaust

Chris Lee

Norman H. Gershman photo exhibit of Albanian Muslims who helped Jews during the Holocaust

Posted in Multimedia on Thursday, October 21, 2010 10:00 pm Updated: 10:00 pm. | Tags: Chris Lee, St. Louis, Temple Emanuel, Norman H. Gershman, Missouri

Norman H. Gershman photo exhibit of Albanian Muslims who helped Jews during the Holocaust

Chris Lee

Norman H. Gershman photo exhibit of Albanian Muslims who helped Jews during the Holocaust

Posted in Multimedia on Thursday, October 21, 2010 10:00 pm Updated: 1:07 am. | Tags: Chris Lee, St. Louis, Temple Emanuel, Norman H. Gershman, Justin Kerber, Missouri




Iklankan produk dan jasa anda di http://iklan789.wordpress.com

Iklankan produk dan jasa anda di iklan789 click aja ini

Suami-suami Takut Istri, Tayangan Tidak Mendidik

Suami-suami Takut Istri, Tayangan Tidak Mendidik

Senin, 12-05-2008 13:56:24 oleh: Anwariansyah

Sinetron komedi situasi berjudul Suami-suami Takut Istri yang ditayangkan oleh stasiun Trans TV setiap hari Senin sampai dengan Kamis pada pukul 18.00 WIB memang terlihat lucu bagi sebagian orang. Sinetron yang menceritakan tentang kehidupan masyarakat sebuah komplek perumahan ini, mengangkat cerita tentang suami-suami di komplek perumahan tersebut yang selalu takut kepada istrinya masing-masing, dalam hal ini takut bila ketahuan menggoda janda seksi di komplek mereka.

Tapi pernahkan Anda memperhatikan dengan seksama bahwa tayangan tersebut sangat tidak mendidik dan membahayakan perkembangan kejiwaan dan budi pekerti anak-anak kita yang ikut-ikutan menonton tayangan tersebut ? Mungkin kita akan berdalih bahwa cerita itu lucu dan hanya merupakan cerita rekaan atau fiksi dan tidak benar-benar terjadi. Tapi apakah Anda bisa memberikan alasan tersebut kepada anak-anak yang ikut menyaksikan sinetron itu, dan yakin bahwa anak-anak itu tidak akan mencontoh beberapa adegan yang sangat tidak sesuai dengan norma-norma pendidikan budi pekerti ?

Adegan beraroma sex

Kebiasaan para suami di dalam tayangan sinetron tersebut yang suka menggoda – sering kali dengan menyerempet-nyerempet “wilayah berbahaya” – si janda muda cantik dan cara berbusana si janda yang sexy, bukanlah penampilan tayangan yang mendidik buat anak-anak. Kesimpulan yang diambil seorang anak adalah bahwa ayah-ayah mereka juga bertabiat yang sama dengan yang ditampilkan di sinetron tersebut. Sehingga rasa hormat mereka kepada orang tua akan berkurang karena asumsi buruk (prasangka jelek) sudah terbangun di dalam pikiran mereka.

Istri-istri dan anak-anak yang berani kepada suami dan ayahnya

Ada lagi adegan sangat – sangat – tidak mendidik, yaitu adegan para istri yang marah kepada suaminya karena ketahuan para suami itu sedang asyik menggoda si janda muda, lalu masing-masing istri tersebut ada yang menjewer, mencubit perut, menarik leher baju, bahkan ada yang menjambak rambut suaminya sambil menarik pulang ke rumah. Yang lebih parah lagi ditambahkan adegan si anak ikut menarik ayahnya bersama-sama dengan ibunya. Bila si istri menarik baju suaminya, si anak juga menarik baju ayahnya. Bila si istri mencubit perut suaminya, si anak juga mencubit perut ayahnya. Yang lebih parah lagi adalah adegan si istri memaki-maki suaminya diikuti oleh anaknya. Apa tidak ada lagi adegan lucu yang bisa ditampilkan, sampai harus menampilkan keburukan akhlak seperti ini ? Apa anak-anak kita akan dijadikan anak durhaka semua ?

Mungkin beberapa pihak berdalih bahwa kalau tidak mau nonton, ya ganti aja kanalnya. Itu bukan jawaban yang bermuatan niat baik, tetapi tidak lebih dari pada jawaban mau menang sendiri. Apakah Trans TV ingin ikut andil dalam penghancuran moral bangsa ?

http://www.wikimu.com/News/DisplayNews.aspx?ID=8180

=====================================================

Suami suami takut istri ; STOP

Otnas,

Mhn perhatian KPI, sinetron suami suami takut istri agar di STOP. Sangat tidak mendidik dan jauh dari realitas. Penggunaan kata yang kasar dan merendahkan posisi suami yang dalam agama islam merupakan pemimpin. Belum lagi jam tayang yang mudah ditonton anak2. Sunggu menyedihkan.

http://www.kpi.go.id/index.php?etats=pengaduan&nid=6355

Awas, Virus Liberal Masuk Pesantren! Tiap tahun, ratusan santri di pesantren ”diboyong” ke luar negeri. Dengan dana besar dari Barat, penyebaran liberalisme ke pesantren terus gencar

Awas, Virus Liberal Masuk Pesantren!

Tiap tahun, ratusan santri di pesantren ”diboyong” ke luar negeri. Dengan dana besar dari Barat, penyebaran liberalisme ke pesantren terus gencar. [bagian pertama]

Suatu hari, salah seorang utusan Kedutaan Besar Amerika Serikat (AS) mendatangi KH Kholil Ridwan, ketua Badan Kerjasama Pondok Pesantren (BKSPPI) se-Indonesia. Utusan ini menyampaikan ajakan kepada Kholil untuk “bertamasya” ke Negeri Paman Bush tersebut. Semua fasilitas dijamin, termasuk uang saku yang tak sedikit. Sungguh tawaran yang menggiurkan!

Tentu saja Kholil tak mau memenuhi undangan tersebut. Ia tahu ada niat tersembunyi di balik ajakan itu.
Namun, belum sempat penolakan disampaikan, undangan tersebut buru-buru dicabut. ”Mereka tahu saya ini anti Amerika,” ujar Kholil kepada Suara Hidayatullah.

Kholil tak sendiri menerima ajakan tersebut. Sejumlah kiai juga menerima ajakan serupa. Bedanya, mereka mau memenuhinya, Kholil tidak.

Maka, setelah itu, silih berganti kiai-kiai mendapat jatah terbang gratis ke negara AS. Selama di sana, mereka dilayani bagai tamu istimewa. Mereka diajak melihat ”realitas” masyarakat AS.

Hasilnya sungguh fantastis. Mereka yang sejak awal bersuara lantang terhadap kekejaman AS di Irak, Afghanistan, dan negeri Islam lainnya, mulai bersuara parau, jika tak ingin dikatakan lembek. Kata mereka, rakyat AS itu tidak sejahat pemerintahnya.

Menurut Kholil, inilah tanda keberhasilan AS mengubah cara pandang negatif masyarakat Muslim terhadap negaranya. Ini pula awal penyusupan paham liberal ke pesantren.

Meski begitu, tak berarti pesantren yang kiainya terkena bujuk rayu AS langsung dicap sebagai liberal. Mereka hanya perlu diwaspadai. Sebab, upaya AS tentu tak akan berhenti sampai di sini. Mereka akan terus berupaya menyusupkan pemikiran liberalnya ke dalam pesantren tersebut. Sekali kena jaring, boleh jadi selanjutnya kembali terperosok.

Menurut pemerhati pemikiran-pemikiran Barat, Adian Husaini, program Barat sekarang ini ingin membuat ”Islam yang lain” menurut versi mereka. ”Tentu yang menjadi sasaran utama adalah pesantren dan perguruan tinggi Islam sebagai tempat strategis pembinaan umat,” tandasnya.

Muncullah pertanyaan di benak kita, mengapa pesantren begitu mudah disusupi mereka? Apa yang salah? Bagaimana pula pemikiran liberal itu bisa menyusup ke ruang-ruang mengaji di pesantren?

Setidaknya, kupasan Suara Hidayatullah dalam Laporan Utama kali ini bisa menambah khazanah pengetahuan bagi jutaan orangtua yang ingin memasukan anaknya ke pesantren. Selamat membaca.

***

Santri Dirayu, Kiai Digoda

Beberapa tahun lalu, Laskar Santri menggelar unjuk rasa menentang sikap Amerika Serikat (AS) yang represif terhadap umat Islam. Para santri Surakarta ini dengan lantang meneriakan yel-yel anti Yahudi dan AS.

Salah seorang di antara mereka ada yang bernama David Adam Al-Rasyid. Dialah santri paling lantang berteriak di antara demonstran lainnya. Di hadapan massa dia berkata, ”Hancurkan Yahudi! Hancurkan Amerika!”

Kenangan itu kini tinggal rekaman peristiwa masa lalu. Sejak David diundang mengikuti pertukaran pelajar ke Amerika selama satu tahun, ada yang berbeda dari dirinya.

”Kalau dulu waktu jadi Laskar Santri saya mengatakan, ’Hancurkan Yahudi! Hancurkan Amerika!’ Tapi sekarang, siapa yang mau dihancurkan? Tidak semua orang Amerika jelek,” ujar David saat ditemui Suara Hidayatullah di Pesantren As-Salam, Surakarta, beberapa waktu lalu.

Saat David hendak berangkat ke AS, ia sempat meminta masukan kepada salah seorang kakak kelasnya di pesantren yang sama. Sang kakak kelas memberi wejangan, ”Ternyata Amerika tidak memusuhi Islam.”

Lalu, berangkatlah David ke Negara Paman Sam. Selama di sana, David dititipkan pada keluarga Katolik di Corvallis, Oregon. Menurutnya, keluarga yang ia diami amat toleran. Buktinya, ia bisa melaksanakan shalat dan membaca al-Qur’an secara rutin.

“Mereka juga bertanya-tanya tentang Islam, mengapa harus shalat? Mengapa harus puasa? Bahkan kadang-kadang mereka menegur saya jika terlambat shalat. Rupanya tidak semua orang Amerika jahat ” kenang David.

Santri asal Yogyakarta ini juga menceritakan kehidupan bebas remaja di sana. Pernah suatu hari, David dikejutkan oleh tangan yang sekonyong-konyong melingkar di pinggangnya. Saat menoleh ke belakang, ternyata tangan itu milik seorang perempuan. Menurut David, di Amerika, hal seperti itu biasa-biasa saja.

David cuma satu dari sekian banyak pelajar Indonesia yang mengikuti program Youth Exchange Study (YES). Program ini diselenggarakan oleh AFS (American Field Service) bekerjasama dengan Yayasan Bina Antara Budaya.

Program ini dirancang setelah peristiwa 11 September 2001, dirancang khusus untuk negara yang mayoritas berpenduduk Muslim. Setiap bulan para peserta dibekali uang saku sebesar 125 dollar AS, atau sekitar Rp 1,2 juta.

Tahun 2007, dari 97 orang pelajar Indonesia yang diberangkatkan, 30 di antaranya dari pesantren seperti Darunnajah, Darul Falah, Insan Cendekia, dan IMMIM Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan.

Suara Hidayatullah sempat menyambangi kantor Yayasan Bina Antara Budaya yang terletak di Jakarta Selatan. Menurut Ketty Darmadjaya, humas yayasan, program ini didesain untuk meningkatkan wawasan santri serta mengubah pandangan masyarakat terhadap pesantren yang selama ini dianggap terbelakang.

Ketty tak menapik kemungkinan tertularnya para santri tersebut dengan paham liberal. “Makanya, sebelum berangkat, kita memberikan orientasi kepada mereka tentang AS. Sepulangnya dari AS, mereka juga kita orientasi kembali. Kita katakan kepada mereka bahwa pengalaman satu tahun di AS bukanlah segalanya. Kita tidak ingin mengubah pandangan mereka terhadap Islam mejadi liberal,” jelasnya.

Bahaya Mengancam

Ternyata, tak hanya santri yang mendapat jatah ’terbang’ ke Amerika. Kiai pimpinan pondok pesantren juga menjadi sasaran untuk diperkenalkan dengan ’wajah manis’ Amerika.

Melalui Institute for Training and Development (ITD), sebuah lembaga milik Amerika, mulai pertengahan September 2002, para kiai bergantian bertandang ke negeri itu. Di awal program, lembaga itu mengundang 13 utusan pesantren ’pilihan’ yang berasal dari Jawa, Madura, Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Sulawesi.

Menurut KH Kholil Ridwan, Ketua Badan Kerjasama Pondok Pesantren se-Indonesia (BKSPPI), program ini terbukti efektif mengubah pandangan para kiai terhadap Amerika. Banyak kiai yang setelah pulang ke tanah air mengatakan, “ Rakyat Amerika tidak sejahat pemerintahnya. Mereka sangat baik.”

Kholil, yang juga Ketua MUI, menolak keras pernyataan para kiai itu. “Di mana sikap baiknya rakyat Amerika? Amerika menyerang Irak atas persetujuan kongres, lalu kongres itu kan wakil rakyat. Jadi, artinya, rakyat Amerika sama jahatnya dengan pemerintahnya,” ungkap pengasuh Ponpes al-Husnayain ini.

Apabila sikap kiai-kiai itu melunak kepada Amerika, kata Kholil lagi, maka liberalisasi akan sangat mudah masuk ke pesantren. Kalau pesantren sudah terjangkit virus liberalisasi, maka akan berdampak pula terhadap pola pikir santrinya.

Nah, santri-santrinya ini pada akhirnya akan menjadi guru madrasah. Kalau gurunya liberal, bisa dipastikan murid-muridnya juga liberal. Generasi muda kita menjadi liberal semua. Perjuangan umat Islam pun melemah. “Ini sangat berbahaya!” Kholil memperingatkan.

Hal yang sama juga diungkap Adian Husaini, salah seorang ketua Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia (DDII). ”Salah satu kelemahan pesantren adalah tidak bisa memberikan framework (bingkai) yang jelas kepada para santrinya,” jelas Adian.

Santri hanya ditekankan pada satu aspek saja, misalnya, fiqih atau lughah (bahasa). Tapi, framework menghadapi tantangan berfikir kadang kurang.

Salah satu pesantren yang telah membekali santrinya untuk menghadapi tantangan berfikir, kata Adian, adalah Gontor. ”Di Gontor, santri yang akan lulus diberi bekal agar bisa menyiapkan diri menghadapi pemikiran Barat. Kalau tidak, ya, dia akan menganggap itu sebagai hal yang benar,” jelasnya. . [diambil dari Majalah Suara Hidayatullah, edisi Januari 2008/www.hidayatullah.com/www.suara-islam.com] berlanjut…

http://moslemgen.blogspot.com/2008/01/awas-virus-liberal-masuk-pesantren.html

Awas, Virus Liberal Masuk Pesantren! [2]
Lanjutan artikel sebelumnya

Tiap tahun, ratusan santri di pesantren ”diboyong” ke luar negeri. Dengan dana besar dari Barat, penyebaran liberalisme ke pesantren terus gencar. [bagian kedua]

Proyek besar penyebaran liberal ke pesantren disinyalir didanai oleh LSM asing yang cabangnya berada di Indonesia, yaitu The Asia Foundation (TAF). Lembaga donor yang disponsori Barat ini telah beroperasi di Indonesia sejak tahun 1955. Beberapa ormas dan lembaga Islam menjadi mitra utama mereka.

Dalam situs resminya http://www.asiafoundation.org lembaga yang menjadi perpanjangan tangan para saudagar Yahudi ini banyak membantu LSM Indonesia yang giat menyosialisasikan sekularisme, pluralisme dan liberalisme (baca; SePiLis). Sebut saja, misalnya, Jaringan Islam Liberal (JIL), P3M, International Center for Islam and Pluralism (ICIP), Wahid Insitute, Maarif Institue, MADIA, dan Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace (ICRP).

Laporan tahunan TAF 2006 menyebutkan, sejak tahun 2000 mereka telah membuat kurikulum kewarganegaraan yang mendukung nilai-nilai demokrasi, mendorong siswa berpikir kritis terhadap isu-isu demokrasi, HAM, dan pluralisme agama. Untuk mewujudkan ini mereka menggandeng CCE Indonesia (pusat pendidikan kewarganegaraan).

Kurikulum itu kini telah menjadi materi wajib di seluruh UIN dan IAIN di seantero Indonesia. Bahkan, mereka tengah berupaya mengembangkan kurikulum serupa untuk diterapkan di universitas Islam swasta.

Para mitra TAF telah memberikan pelatihan kurikulum baru ini kepada 90 dosen kewarganegaraan dari 66 universitas Islam swasta pada tahun 2006. Para dosen tadi sudah mulai mengajarkan kurikulum tersebut kepada sekitar 20.000 mahasiswa mereka.

Pasca 11/9

Proyek liberalisasi pendidikan Islam semakin deras arusnya setelah peristiwa 11 September. Workshop-workshop bertema liberal banyak digelar atas dukungan TAF dan ICIP.

Berapa dollar AS yang digelontorkan kedua organisasi ini untuk proyek liberalisasi Indonesia? Robin Bush, Deputy Country Representative TAF untuk Indonesia, saat ditanya Suara Hidayatullah tentang itu tidak bersedia menjawabnya. Begitu juga Elfiqa D Siregar, salah satu staf ICIP, saat ditemui di kantornya di kawasan elit Pondok Indah, Jakarta, juga tidak menyebutkan jumlah pasti. Ia cuma menyebut salah satu nama lembaga pemasok dana, Ford Foundation.

Namun, Robin menolak anggapan bahwa lembaganya disebut membawa misi liberalisasi. “Kami di TAF sama sekali tidak punya program liberalisasi,” ujarnya saat ditemui di kantor TAF, jl Adityawarman no 40, Jakarta Selatan.

“Kami bekerja sama dengan pesantren karena tahu lembaga pendidikan ini erat kaitannya dengan masyarakat kelas bawah. Ini sesuai dengan apa yang menjadi benang merah dari semua misi TAF, yaitu good governence, serta meningkatkan kesejahteraan bangsa Indonesia,” terangnya lagi.

Menurut Bush, TAF tidak pernah menawarkan sesuatu kepada pesantren atau lembaga-lembaga Islam. ”Semua program yang dijalankan TAF adalah inisiatif mitra kami. Mereka datang ke kami dengan ide, bukan kami datang ke mereka dengan ide,” kata bule yang sudah lancar berbahasa Indonesia ini.

Hal senada juga disampaikan Elfiqa. ”Saya pribadi melihat tuduhan itu nggak benar. Saya turun langsung ke lapangan, saya lihat tidak ada. Tidak ada doktrin-doktrin itu,” jelasnya.

Apa pun perkataan mereka, faktanya, TAF dan ICIP telah banyak menggelontorkan program liberalisasi. Bahkan, kalau melihat visi dan misinya, jelas tujuan ICIP adalah mempromosikan pluralisme. Apalagi jika melihat daftar orang-orang yang duduk di jajaran dewan direktur. Di sana ada Moeslim Abdurrahman, Musdah Mulia, dan Ulil Abshar Abdalla. Siapa mereka? Pembaca pasti sudah tahu. [diambil dari majalah Suara Hidayatullah, edisi Januari 2008/www.hidayatullah.com/www.suara-islam.com]

http://moslemgen.blogspot.com/2008/01/awas-virus-liberal-masuk-pesantren-2.html

Kapitalisme, IMF, dan Bank Dunia Digugat di PBB

Kapitalisme, IMF, dan Bank Dunia Digugat di PBB

>> Jumat, 26 Juni 2009

PBB, New York (ANTARA News/Reuters) – Presiden Ekuador yang berhaluan kiri Rafael Correa, Kamis, menuding kapitalisme sebagai penyebab krisis keuangan global dan mendesak dihapuskannya Dana Moneter Internasional dan Bank Dunia.

Kecaman terhadap IMF dan lembaga-lembaga Bretton Woods lainnya yang didirikan selama Perang Dunia Kedua menjadi suasana umum dalam sidang tiga hari membahas krisis ekonomi di Majelis Umum PBB.

Bretton Woods adalah satu tempat di negara bagian New Hampshire, AS, dimana 730 delegasi dari 44 negara berkumpul pada Juli 1944 untuk membangun sistem perekonomian dunia yang menjadi cikal bakal lahirnya Bank Dunia dan IMF.

“Membadut kepada sistem Bretton Woods yang tidak bisa kita kendalikan, adalah sia-sia saja bagi negara-negara (berkembang),” kata Correa pada satu pidato di hari kedua konferensi PBB itu.

Oleh karena, reformasi IMF dan Bank Dunia bukanlah solusi yang cukup karena dunia kini menghadapi satu krisis yang berbeda dari krisis sebelumnya yang diprovokasi kapitalisme, tambahnya.

Jika lembaga-lembaga Bretton Woods tidak dihapus, maka lembaga-lembaga itu mesti diubah dan kewenangannya di negara-negara miskin dikurangi. Sebaliknya, PBB harus diberikan otoritas dan kekuasaan lebih besar dalam memutuskan soal keuangan.

Sebelumnya pada konferensi hari pertama Menteri Perdagangan Kuba Rodrigo Malmierca Diaz menyatakan IMF dan Bank Dunia telah menyengsarakan bangsa-bangsa seluruh dunia dan harus dihapus.

Pertemuan PBB ini sedianya diselenggarakan pada 1-3 Juni namun Presiden Majelis Umum PBB Miguel D’Escoto, seorang kiri dan mantan menteri luar negeri Nikaragua, memundurkannya ke minggu ini karena ada perdebatan seputar draft proposal reformasi sistem keuangan dunia.

Sekitar sepertiga dari 192 negara anggota Majelis Umum PBB turut serta dalam konferensi yang rencananya akan mengadopsi satu dokumen draft mengenai proposal reformasi sistem keuangan yang oleh para diplomat disebut hampir disepakati tanpa syarat.

Proposal final yang semula dipersiapkan oleh D’Escoto namun kemudian ditolak negara-negara Barat karena terlalu radikal, termasuk seruan reformasi IMF.

Namun satu-satunya reformasi khusus yang diseru proposal ini adalah bahwa kekuatan mengambil kebijakan dari negara-negara berperekonomian berkembang dan negara berkembang akan ditingkatkan pada pengkajian kembali perimbangan suara IMF awal 2011 nanti.

Penghapusan Utang

Peraih Nobel ekonomi sekaligus penasihat D’Escoto, ekonom Joseph Stiglitz, berkata pada wartawan bahwa negara-negara maju mengakui banyak masalah berat sehingga mereka mulai melakukan reformasi.

“Pandangan pribadiku adalah bahwa tampaknya akan banyak gejolak di masa mendatang dan itu akan menjadi sangat menyulitkan pulihnya pertumbuhan ekonomi sampai setidaknya kita melakukan beberapa reformasi,” kata Stiglitz.

Salah satu wilayah perdebatan konferensi adalah pembentukkan alternatif cadangan mata uang global di luar dolar AS dimana Stiglitz mengatakan reformasi sistem rezim mata uang menjadi bagian dari proses reformasi itu.

Draft yang rencananya akan diadopsi seluruh delegasi peserta konferensi Jumat waktu AS (Sabtu WIB) ini juga menyerukan peningkatan bantuan dan penghapusan utang untuk negara-negara miskin serta pengawasan lebih ketat terhadap “hedge fund” (spekulan keuangan) dan produk-produk keuangan derivatif, serta mengingatkan ancaman proteksionisme perdagangan.

Draft ini juga berisi peningkatan kerjasama antara PBB dan lembaga-lembaga keuangan global, namun tidak menyebut secara khusus apa yang sesungguhnya diperlukan dunia. Draft ini juga tidak berisi terobosan terhadap proses itu, seperti diinginkan kebanyakan negara miskin.

Sejumlah delegasi termasuk AS dan Uni Eropa, berencana mengeluarkan pernyataan setelah proposal ini dikemukakan dan akan menunjukkan sikap mereka yang tidak mendukung semua isi dokumen draft, aku seorang diplomat PBB yang menolak menyebutkan jati dirinya.

Kebanyakan delegasi telah menyuarakan perlunya mereformasi IMF dan Bank Dunia, namun wakil-wakil negara maju di Barat menolak gagasan penghapusan kedua lembaga itu.

“Lembaga-lembaga Bretton Woods tidak lagi populer dan sudah tidak begitu penting,” kata menteri urusan Afrika Kerajaan Inggris, Malloch Brown.

Meskipun pertemuan PBB ini diperlakukan setingkat KTT, tidak ada satu pun pemimpin Barat yang menghadirinya dan hanya sedikit presiden dan perdana menteri yang hadir, kebanyakan dari Amerika Latin dan Karibia. Negara-negara lainnya hanya mengirimkan delegasi yang lebih rendah dari itu.

Para diplomat Barat mengatakan ketidakhadiran banyak pemimpin dunia di konferensi itu sebagai bentuk ketidakpuasan atas cara D’Escoto menyelenggarakan perhelatan itu. (*)
http://beritakbar.blogspot.com/2009/06/kapitalisme-imf-dan-bank-dunia-digugat.html

Utang Luar Negeri: Fakta, Bahaya Dan Tinjauan Hukum Syara

Utang Luar Negeri: Fakta, Bahaya Dan Tinjauan Hukum Syara

HTI-Press. Memasuki pertengahan semester kedua tahun 2008 utang luar negeri Indonesia meningkat US$ 2,335 miliar. salah satu dampak penammbahan signifikian akibat fluktuasi nilai tukar rupiah terhadap tiga valuta asing utama, yakni yen Jepang, dollar AS, dan euro!!! (Bulan juni 2008 utang luar negeri Indonesia masih 1,780 Milyar Dollar). (Kompas, Senin 24 November 2008)

Cicilan yang harus dibayar tahun 2009 sebesar US$22 milyar, artinya tahun 2009 Negera kita harus mengeluarkan Rp 250 triliun. Terdiri dari, utang pemerintah US$ 9 miliar dan utang luar negeri (LN) swasta US$ 13 miliar. Di antara utang pemerintah itu, uang LN yang jatuh tempo pada 2009 senilai Rp 59 triliun. Sedangkan cadangan devisa kita hanya $50miliar. (Kompas, Senin 24 November 2008)

Cicilan tahun 2009 tersebut kalau kita komparasikan dengan jumlah penduduk Indonesia (± 230juta jiwa) maka total cicilan yang harus dibayar tahun 2009 adalah Rp. 1,086,000/jiwa penduduk. Bandingkan dengan UMR DKI Jakarta tahun adalah RP. 1,069,865. Akan tetapi kalau kita mau melunasi utang kita tiap penduduk kita harus membayar 106juta/jiwa penduduk.

Dengan total utang 2,335 milyar Dollar Perlu kita ketahui dengan tingkat bunga sekitar 5%, jumlah bunga yang harus kita bayarkan berkisar 116,7 milyar Dollar.!!! Seandainya kita mengasumbikan tiap hari seorang penduduk Indonesia untuk makan tiap hari mengeluarkan biaya Rp 15 ribu rupiah sekali makan dan 3 kali makan dalam sehari (Rp. 45,000). Maka untuk bunganya saja dari utang kita dalam setahun sangat mencukupi untuk makan penduduk Indonesia sebanyak 71, juta jiwa selama setahun!!!!

Sampai saat ini kita tidak melihat adanya usaha yang serius dari pemerintah Indonesia untuk berinisiatif mendesak negara-negara Donor, sekalipun hanya untuk merumuskan proposal pengurangan/penghapusan utang. Dalam tiga tahun kebelakang ada beberapa kesempatan resmi untuk hal tersebut, misalnya saat UN Millennium+5 Summit bulan September 2005 di New York, KTT D-8 pada Mei 2006 di Bali, atau yang terbaru pertemuan G20 di Brasil Awal November 2008.

Padahal pemerintah juga punya alasan yang sangat baik untuk pengurangan/penghapusan utang seperti Bencana alam yang menelan korban dan kerusakan infrastruktur seperti tsunami hingga gempa di Yogyakarta-Jawa Tengah sebetulnya dapat memperkuat argumen tentang perlunya pengurangan/penghapusan utang. Entah karena segan, tidak berdaya atau karena ketidakmampuan, pemerintah tetap tidak mau mengajukan penghapusan/pengurangan utangnya. (www.atmajaya.ac.id/content.asp dan Kompas 14 Juni 2006)

Utang menempati peran penting dalam Demokrasi dan Kapitalisme

Kalau kita telaah lebih mendalam, ideologi demokrasi dengan kapitalisme sebagai basis kekuatan yang dikembangkan dunia terutama amerika, eropa dan negara-negara maju, punya pengaruh yang kuat terhadap utang ini. Karena dalam alam demokasi , Utang telah menempati peran penting melalui mekanisme ekonomi kapitalis. Dalam konsep kapitalisme yang sudah kita pelajari dari mulai kita sekolah sampai dengan tingkat praktisi, sudah diarahkan dan dibenamkan pemikiran kita bahwa Utang mengambil peranan yang penting dari mulai penempatan modal awal yang akan digunakan untuk memulai suatu usaha sampai dengan ekspansi bisnis yang dilakukan oleh indivisu maupun perusahaan. Ini sudah menjadi jalan yang shohih dan sharih dalam kehidupan sekarang ini. Padahal tanpa terasa didalamnya mengandung riba karena adanya perhitungan time value of money. Kita bisa lihat hal ini dalam skala kecil industri menengah, multinasional, baik usaha biasa maupun di perusahaan di bursa hingga pemerintah.

Konsep tersebut diterapkan dengan asumsi bahwa baik individu mau pun perusahaan tidak akan memiliki cukup uang untuk melakukan rencana ekspansi/perluasan usaha, sehingga sudah menjadi hal yang lumrah untuk mencari pinjaman. Bukannya menunggu dari akumulasi keuntungan. Kalau kita telaah kiprah perbankan dalam 300 tahun terakhir, dimana sektor perbankan telah berkembang sampai memainkan peran kunci dalam kehidupan ekonomi, karena perbankan menjadi alat untuk mengumpulkan dana dari masyarakat kemudian diberdayagunakan dalam proses pinjam meminjang atau utang piutang.

Lalu kenapa jalan ini yang dipilih untuk pembangunan??? Padahal ini adalah Jerat (konsep utang) dan ribawi.

Dampak Utang Luar Negeri

Pertama, dampak langsung dari utang yaitu cicilan bunga yang makin mencekik.

Kedua, dampak yang paling hakiki dari utang tersebut yaitu hilangnya kemandirian akibat keterbelengguan atas keleluasaan arah pembangunan negeri, oleh si pemberi pinjaman.

Kalau kita simak pengalaman dan sejarah, betapa susahnya kita menentukan arah pembangunan yang di cita-cita negeri ini. Penyebabnya adalah term and condition atau syarat yang ditetapkan oleh di rentenir(negara-negara donor tersebut). Terlihat jelas adanya indikator-indikator baku yang ditetapkan oleh Negera-negara donor, seperti arah pembangunan yang ditentukan. Baik motifnya politis maupun motif ekonomi itu sendiri. Misalnya kita ketahui bahwa di dalam CGI, selama ini Amerika Serikat dan Belanda dikenal sangat vokal saat menekankan sejumlah persyaratan kepada Indonesia. Padahal, jumlah pinjaman yang mereka kucurkan tak banyak, tak sebanding dengan kevokalannya. Sialnya, AS dan Belanda mampu memprovokasi anggota CGI lainnya untuk mengajukan syarat-syarat yang membebani Indonesia. (http://isei.or.id/page.php?id=5des068)

Pada akhirnya arah pembangunan kita memang penuh kompromi dan disetir, membuat Indonesia makin terjepit dan terbelenggu dalam kebijakan-kebijakan yang dibuat negara Donor. Hal ini sangat beralasan karena mereka sendiri harus menjaga, mengawasi dan memastikan bahwa pengembalian dari pinjaman tersebut plus keuntungan atas pinjaman, mampu dikembalikan. Alih-alih untuk memfokuskan pada kesejahteraan rakyat, pada akhirnya adalah konsep tersebut asal jalan pada periode kepemimpinannya, juga makin membuat rakyat terjepit karena mengembalikan pinjaman tersebut diambil dari pendapatan negara yang harusnya untuk dikembalikan kepada rakyat yaitu kekayaan negara hasil bumi dan Pajak.

Bahaya Utang Luar Negeri sebagai Instrument Penjajahan

Pertama, Abdurrahaman al-Maliki mengungkap lima bahaya besar yang jelas-jelas tampak di depan mata (Abdurrahman al-Maliki, op.cit., hal. 200-207, Bab Akhthar al-Qurudh al-Ajnabiyah) yakni; sesungguhnya utang luar negeri untuk pendanaan proyek-proyek milik negara adalah hal yang berbahaya terutama terhadap eksistensi negara itu sendiri. Akibat lebih jauh adalah membuat masyarakat negara tersebut makin menderita karena ini adalah jalan untuk menjajah suatu negara. Seperti kita mafhum bahwa Mesir dijajah Inggris melalui jalur utang, begitu pula Tunisia di cengkram Perancis melalui jalur yang sama yaitu utang. Begitu pula negara Barat membentangkan hegemoninya terhadap negara Utsmaniyah pada akhir masa kekuasaannya melalui jalur utang. Karena dengan utang yang menumpuk Daulah khilafah Utsmaniyah yang ditakuti oleh Eropa selama 5 abad, sejak sultan Muhammad al-Fatih menaklukan konstantinopel pada tahun 1453, akhirnya menjadi negara yang lemah, tak berdaya (sebutan daulah khilafah kala itu adalah the Sick man-manusia yang sakit). Dimana akibatnya dimanfaatkan oleh Gerakan Zionis International, Dr. Theodore Hertzel pada tahun 1897 menemui Sultan Abdul Hamid II untuk meminta izin agar dapat membangun tempat ziarah Yahudi di Palestina, Yerusalem dengan imbalan Gerakan Zionis International akan melunasi seluruh utang-utang Turki. (Abdurrahman al-Maliki, Politik Ekonomi Islam)

Kalau kita lihat sejarah negara-negara Barat sebelum Perang Dunia I menempuh cara dengan memberikan uang sebagai utang dimana kemudian utang tersebut mereka melakukan intervensi dan kemudian mendudukinya.

Kedua, sebelum hutang diberikan, negara-negara donor harus mengetahui kapasitas dan kapabilitas sebuah negara yang berutang dengan cara mengirimkan pakar-pakar ekonominya untuk memata-matai rahasia kekuatan/kelemahan ekonomi negara tersebut dengan dalih bantuan konsultan teknis atau konsultan ekonomi. Saat ini di Indonesia, sejumlah pakar dan tim pengawas dari IMF telah ditempatkan pada hampir semua lembaga pemerintah yang terkait dengan isi perjanjian Letter of Intent (LoI) (Roem Topatimasang, Hutang Itu Hutang, hal. 9). Ini jelas berbahaya, karena berarti rahasia kekuatan dan kelemahan ekonomi Indonesia akan menjadi terkuak dan sekaligus dapat dijadikan sebagai dasar penyusunan berbagai persyaratan (conditionalities) pemberian pinjaman yang sangat mencekik leher rakyat melarat —seperti pemotongan subsidi bahan pangan, pupuk, dan BBM— yang akhirnya hanya menguntungkan pihak negara-negara donor sementara Indonesia hanya dapat gigit jari saja menelan kepahitan ekonomi.

Ketiga, pemberian utang adalah sebuah proses agar negara peminjam tetap miskin, tergantung dan terjerat utang yang makin bertumpuk-tumpuk dari waktu ke waktu. Pada akhir pemerintahan Presiden Soekarno tahun 1966, utang luar negeri Indonesia 2,437 miliar dolar AS. Itu hanya utang pemerintah. Jumlah ini meningkat 27 kali lipat pada akhir pemerintahan Presiden Soeharto Mei 1998, dengan nilai 67,329 miliar dolar. Pada akhir tahun 2003 utang itu menjadi 77,930 miliar dolar AS. Swasta baru mulai mengutang pada tahun 1981. Pada tahun 1998 jumlah utang swasta sudah mencapai 83,557 miliar dollar. Menjelang akhir tahun 2008 sudah mencapai US $ 2.335,8 Miliar.!!!

Keempat, utang luar negeri yang diberikan pada dasarnya merupakan senjata politik (as silah as siyasi) negara-negara kapitalis kafir Barat kepada negara-negara lain, yang kebanyakan negeri-negeri muslim, untuk memaksakan kebijakan politik, ekonomi, terhadap kaum muslimin. Tujuan mereka memberi utang bukanlah untuk membantu negara lain, melainkan untuk kemaslahatan, keuntungan, dan eksistensi mereka sendiri. Mereka menjadikan negara-negara pengutang sebagai alat sekaligus ajang untuk mencapai kepentingan mereka. Dokumen-dokumen resmi AS telah mengungkapkan bahwa tujuan bantuan luar negeri AS adalah untuk mengamankan kepentingan AS itu sendiri dan mengamankan kepentingan “Dunia Bebas” (negara-negara kapitalis). Pada akhir tahun 1962 dan awal tahun 1963 di AS muncul debat publik seputar bantuan luar negeri AS bidang ekonomi dan militer. Maka kemudian Kennedy membentuk sebuah komisi beranggotakan tokoh-tokoh masyarakat, yang diketuai oleh Jenderal Lucas Clay, untuk mengkaji masalah ini. Pada minggu terakhir Maret 1963, komisi itu mengeluarkan dokumen hasil kajiannya. Di antara yang termaktub di sana, bahwa tujuan pemberian bantuan luar negeri dan standar untuk memberikan bantuan adalah “keamanan bangsa Amerika Serikat dan keamanan serta keselamatan ‘Dunia Bebas’.” Inilah standar umum untuk seluruh bantuan ekonomi ataupun militer.

Jadi, tujuan pemberian bantuan luar negeri tersebut sebenarnya bukan untuk membantu negara-negara yang terbelakang, melainkan untuk menjaga keamanan Amerika dan negara-negara kapitalis lainnya, atau dengan kata lain, tujuannya adalah menjadikan negara-negara penerima bantuan tunduk di bawah dominasi AS untuk kemudian dijadikan sapi perahan AS dan alat untuk membela kepentingan AS dan negara-negara Barat lainnya (Abdurrahman al-Maliki, op.cit., hal. 204-205).

Kelima, utang luar negeri sebenarnya sangat melemahkan dan membahayakan sektor keuangan (moneter) negara pengutang. Utang jangka pendek, berbahaya karena akan dapat memukul mata uang domestik dan akhirnya akan dapat memicu kekacauan ekonomi dan keresahan sosial. Sebab bila utang jangka pendek ini jatuh tempo, dengan pembayarannya menggunakan mata uang Dollar yang merupakan hard currency. Maka dari itu, negara penghutang akan kedulitan untuk melunasi hutangnya dengan dolar AS karena mengharuskan penyediaaan mata uang US tersebut, (untuk pembayaran utang Swasta, ini akan berdampak pada keterpaksaan pembelian dolar, dimana dolar akan dibeli dengan harga yang sangat tinggi terhadap mata uang lokal, sehingga akhirnya akan membawa kemerosotan nilai mata uang lokal). Untuk utang jangka panjang, juga berbahaya karena makin lama jumlahnya semakin mencengkram, yang akhirnya akan dapat melemahkan anggaran belanja negara dan membuatnya makin kesulitan dan terpuruk atas utang-utangnya. Disitulah negara-negara Donor makin memaksakan kehendak dan kebijakannya yang sangat merugikan kepada negara.

Pandangan Hukum Islam terhadap Utang Luar Negeri

Kalau kita telaah lebih mendalam ada beberapa hal yang menjadikan utang Luar negeri menjadi bathil.

Pertama Utang luar negeri tidak dapat dilepaskan dari bunga (riba). Padahal Islam dengan tegas telah mengharamkan riba itu. Riba adalah dosa besar yang wajib dijauhi oleh kaum muslimin dengan sejauh-jauihnya. Allah SWT berfirman :

وأحل الله البيع وحرم الربا

Dan Allah telah menghalalkan jual-beli dan mengharamkan riba…” (Qs. al-Baqarah [2]: 275).

Rasulullah Saw bersabda:
الربا ثلثة وسبعون بابا وأيسرها مثل أن يكح الرجل أمه

Riba itu mempunyai 73 macam dosa. Sedangkan (dosa) yang paling ringan (dari macam-macam riba tersebut) adalah seperti seseorang yang menikahi (menzinai) ibu kandungnya sendiri…” [HR. Ibnu Majah, hadits No.2275; dan al-Hakim, Jilid II halaman 37; dari Ibnu Mas’ud, dengan sanad yang shahih].

Kedua, terdapat unsur Riba Qaradl, yaitu adanya pinjam meminjam uang dari seseorang kepada seseorang dengan syarat ada kelebihan atau keuntungan yang harus diberikan oleh peminjam kepada pemberi pinjaman. Riba semacam ini dilarang di dalam Islam berdasarkan hadits-hadits berikut ini;

Imam Bukhari meriwayatkan sebuah hadits dari Abu Burdah bin Musa; ia berkata, “Suatu ketika, aku mengunjungi Madinah. Lalu aku berjumpa dengan Abdullah bin Salam. Lantas orang ini berkata kepadaku: ‘Sesungguhnya engkau berada di suatu tempat yang di sana praktek riba telah merajalela. Apabila engkau memberikan pinjaman kepada seseorang lalu ia memberikan hadiah kepadamu berupa rumput ker¬ing, gandum atau makanan ternak, maka janganlah diterima. Sebab, pemberian tersebut adalah riba”. [HR. Imam Bukhari]

Juga, Imam Bukhari dalam “Kitab Tarikh”nya, meriwayatkan sebuah Hadits dari Anas ra bahwa Rasulullah SAW telah bersabda, “Bila ada yang memberikan pinjaman (uang maupun barang), maka janganlah ia menerima hadiah (dari yang meminjamkannya)”.[HR. Imam Bukhari]

Hadits di atas menunjukkan bahwa peminjam tidak boleh memberikan hadiah kepada pemberi pinjaman dalam bentuk apapun, lebih-lebih lagi jika si peminjam menetapkan adanya tambahan atas pinjamannya. Tentunya ini lebih dilarang lagi.

Ketiga utang luar negeri menjadi sarana (wasilah) timbulnya berbagai kemudharatan, seperti terus berlangsungnya kemiskinan, bertambahnya harga-harga kebutuhan pokok dan BBM, dan sebagainya. Semua jenis sarana atau perantaraan yang dapat membawa kemudharatan (dharar) —padahal keberadaannya telah diharamkan— adalah haram. Kaidah syara’ menetapkan:
الوسيلة إلى الحرام محرمة
Segala perantaraan yang membawa kepada yang haram, maka ia diharamkan

Keempat, bantuan luar negeri telah membuat negara-negara kapitalis yang kafir dapat mendominasi, mengeksploitasi, dan menguasai kaum muslimin. Ini haram dan tidak boleh terjadi. Allah SWT berfirman:

ولن يجعل الله للكافرين على المؤمنين سبيلا

Dan sekali-kali Allah tidak akan menjadikan jalan bagi orang-orang kafir untuk menguasai kaum mu`minin.” (Qs. an-Nisaa` [4]: 141).

Hukum Syara tentang Utang Luar Negeri

Utang yang terkait dengan individu hukumnya mubah, untuk itu setiap individu boleh berutang kepada siapa saja yang dikehendaki, berapa yang diinginkan baik kepada sesama rakyat maupun kepada orang asing. seperti yang diungkapkan dari hadist :

Dari Rafi’ berkata, Nabi saw meminjam lembu muda, kemudian Nabi saw menerima unta yang bagus, lalu beliau menyuruhku melunasi utang lembu mudanya kepada orang itu. Aku berkata “Aku tidak mendapati pada unta itu selain unta yang ke empat kakinya bagus-bagus. Beliau bersabda berikan saja ia kepadanya, sebab sebaik-baik manusia adalah mereka yang paling baik ketika melunasi utangnnya.

Hanya saja, apabila utang atau bantuan-bantuan tersebut membawa bahaya maka utang tersebut diharamkan. Hal ini mengacu kepada kaidah :

Apabila terjadi bahaya(kerusakan) akibat bagian diantaranya satuan-satuan yang mubah, maka satuan itu saja yang dilarang.

Adapun berutangnya negara, maka hal itu seharusnya tidak perlu dilakukan, kecuali untuk perkara-perkara yang urgen dan jika ditangguhkan dikhawatirkan terjadi kerusakan atau kebinasaan, maka ketika itu negara dapat berutang, kemudian orang-orang ditarik pajak dipakai untuk melunasinya. Atau kalau memungkinkan digunakan dari pendapatan negara yang lain. Status negara berutang itu mubah dalam satu keadaan saja, yaitu apabila di baitul mal tidak ada harta, dan kepentingan yang mengharuskan negara hendak berutang adalah termasuk perkara yang menjadi tanggung jawab kaum muslimin, dan apabila tertunda/ditunda dapat menimbulkan kerusakan. Inilah dibolehkannya negara berutang, sedangkan untuk kepentingan lainnya mutlak negara tidak boleh berutang.

Untuk proyek infrastruktur, tidak termasuk perkara yang menjadi tanggung jawab kaum muslimin, namun termasuk tanggung jawab baitul mal, yaitu termasuk tanggung jawab negara. Oleh karena itu negara tidak boleh berutang demi untuk kepentingan pembangunan proyek baik dari dalam negeri maupun dari luar negeri.

Sedangkan Untuk pengelolaan dan penanaman modal asing diseluruh negara tidak dibolehkan termasuk larangan memberikan monopoli kepada pihak asing. Larangan seluruh kegiatan tersebut adalah karena aktivitas tersebut terkait langsung atau dapat menghantarkan pada perbuatan yang haram. Baik itu penanaman modal asing melalui bursa saham adalah haram sebab kegiatan dibursa saham adalah haram. Ataupun utang untuk investasi pembangunan. Karena pengelolaan modal dengan jalan utang dari pihak asing juga dilarang sebab terkait dengan aktivitas riba yang diharamkan.

Dengan demikian, utang luar negeri dengan segala bentuknya harus ditolak. Kita tidak lagi berpikir bisakah kita keluar dari jeratan utang atau tidak.

Yang penting dipikirkan justru harus ada upaya riil untuk menghentikan utang luar negeri yang eksploitatif itu.

Pertama, kesadaran akan bahaya utang luar negeri, bahwa utang yang dikucurkan negara-negara kapitalis akan berujung pada kesengsaraan. Selama ini, salah satu penghambat besar untuk keluar dari jerat utang adalah pemahaman yang salah tentang utang luar negeri. Utang luar negeri dianggap sebagai sumber pendapatan, dan oleh karenanya dimasukkan dalam pos pendapatan Negara. Kucuran utang dianggap sebagai bentuk kepercayaan luar negeri terhadap pemerintah. Sehingga, semakin banyak utang yang dikucurkan, semakin besar pula kepercayaan luar negeri terhadap pemerintahan di sini. Demikian juga pemahaman bahwa pembangunan tidak bisa dilakukan kecuali harus dengan utang luar negeri.

Kedua, keinginan dan tekad kuat untuk mandiri harus ditancapkan sehingga memunculkan ide-ide kreatif yang dapat menyelesaikan berbagai problem kehidupan, termasuk problem ekonomi. Sebaliknya mentalitas ketergantungan pada luar negeri harus dikikis habis.

sejumlah program yang dicanangkan negara donor berpotensi menambah jumlah kaum miskin. Program-program yang diajukan di bidang politik dan ekonomi antara lain : (1) standarisasi Gaji (juga upah buruh) sehingga kenaikannya dibatasi dapat diatur dengan undang-undang. Padahal ini akan kontradiktif dengan daya beli, karena situasi yang mengakibatkan harga membumbung sementara gaji mengalami pelambatan; (2) kebijakan di bidang kesehatan, dimana subsidi dikurangi yang mengakibatkan tarif layanan kesehatan RS milik pemerintah melonjak. Dan mengeluarkan kebijakan kartu miskin mampu menyelesaikan masalah, padahal masalah sebenarnya ada pada kum marginal, dimana tidak termasuk golongan masyarakat miskin; (3)Adanya Undang-Undang Badan Hukum Pendidikan, yang mengakibatkan biaya pendidikan Perguruan Tinggi makin mahal dan makin tidak terjangka masyarakat miskin dan marginal; (4) Subsidi BBM harus dihilangkan; (5) Merosotnya nilai mata uang. Kondisi ini akan menyebabkan ekspor besar-besaran dan menurunnya konsumsi dalam negeri. Pasar dalam negeri akan mengalami kelangkaan barang akibat ekspor berlebihan. Langkanya barang, jelas dapat melambungkan harga; (6) Liberalisasi ekonomi terhadap pihak luar negeri. Kebijakan ini akan memberi kesempatan kepada perusahaan-perusahaan multinasional untuk melebarkan sayapnya di sini. Akibatnya, bukan saja keuntungan besar yang mengalir ke luar negeri, namun juga dapat mematikan perusahaan lokal. Tentu saja hal ini akan dapat memancing kerusuhan sosial yang ujung-ujungnya akan membuat rakyat menderita. Apalagi dalam penerapan kebijakan pemerintah ini, tak jarang dibarengi dengan politik represif atau kekuatan militer yang kejam (Rudolf H. Strahm, Kemiskinan Dunia Ketiga: Menelaah Kegagalan Pembangunan di Negara Berkembang, hal. 99).

Ketiga, menekan segala bentuk pemborosan negara, baik oleh korupsi maupun anggaran yang memperkaya pribadi pejabat, yang bisa menyebabkan defisit anggaran. Proyek-proyek pembangunan ekonomi yang tidak strategis dalam jangka panjang, tidak sesuai dengan kebutuhan rakyat Indonesia, dan semakin menimbulkan kesenjangan sosial harus dihentikan.

Keempat, melakukan pengembangan dan pembangunan kemandirian dan ketahanan pangan. Dengan membangun sector pertanian khususnya produk-produk pertanian seperti beras, kacang, kedelai, tebu, kelapa sawit, peternakan dan perikanan yang masuk sembako. Dan memberdayakan lahan maupun barang milik negara dan umum (kaum muslimin) seperti laut, gunung, hutan, pantai, sungai, danau, pertambangan, emas, minyak, timah, tembaga, nikel, gas alam, batu bara dll.

Kelima, mengatur ekspor dan impor yang akan memperkuat ekonomi dalam negeri dengan memutuskan import atas barang-barang luar negeri yang diproduksi di dalam negeri dan membatasi import dalam bentuk bahan mentah atau bahan baku yang diperlukan untuk industri dasar dan industri berat yang sarat dengan teknologi tinggi. Serta memperbesar ekspor untuk barang-barang yang bernilai ekonomi tinggi, dengan catatan tidak mengganggu kebutuhan dalam negeri dan tidak memperkuat ekonomi dan eksistensi negara-negara Barat Imperialis.

Namun semua upaya ini hanya akan dapat berhasil dengan gemilang, tidak akan dapat mengantarkan umat menuju puncak keridhaan Allah SWT yang abadi, selain dengan menegakkan risalah Islam secara total dengan jalan menegakkan Khilafah Islamiyah yang bertanggung jawab menegakkan risalah Islam dan menyebarluaskan Islam ke seluruh pelosok dunia.

Wallah a’lam bi al-shawab.

(Arif Adiningrat – Lajnah Tsaqafiyyah).
http://hizbut-tahrir.or.id/2009/01/21/utang-luar-negeri-fakta-bahaya-dan-tinjauan-hukum-syara/

Erfin Syafrizal

Erfin Syafrizal from Indonesia.

Posted in Uncategorized. Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . 2 Comments »

’Sungai Besar’ Jadi Rebutan Aset Great River

’Sungai Besar’ Jadi Rebutan Aset Great River

Ariyanto dan Bona Ventura

JAKARTA siang itu cukup terik. Tapi, puluhan buruh PT Great River International Tbk. seperti tak peduli. Rabu pekan lalu, di depan Pengadilan Niaga Jakarta mereka terus bergerombol meski matahari seperti tepat berada di atas kepala. ”Memang perusahaan sudah tidak beroperasi. Tetapi, kami tidak setuju jika dipailitkan,” ujar Martanto, salah seorang perwakilan karyawan.
Nasib PT Great River memang bak berada di ujung tanduk. Perusahaan tekstil yang memegang lisensi sejumlah merek pakaian terkenal, seperti Arrow, Triumph, Lee, dan Kenzo tersebut terancam divonis pailit alias bangkrut. Jika tak ada aral, Senin pekan ini pengadilan yang berlokasi di Jalan Gajah Mada, Jakarta Pusat, itu akan menjatuhkan putusan atas permohonan pailit itu.
Menariknya, tuntutan pailit itu dilayangkan oleh sebagian buruh perusahaan itu sendiri. Persisnya, awal Mei lalu lima orang karyawan, tiga di antaranya pegawai harian dua bulanan, yakni Susanto, Nawawie, Yusuf Iskandar, Safruddin, dan Gandi S., melayangkan permohonan pailit ke Pengadilan Niaga Jakarta. Mereka tampaknya sudah tidak sabar lagi menunggu pembayaran upah yang sudah terhenti sejak Juli 2006 silam.

Artikel Lain
Kisah Istri Jenderal dan Tender Helikopter
Edwin pun Lepas Landas
Dicari: Pemimpin yang Paham Masalah
Kado untuk ’Sultan’ Senayan
’Sungai Besar’ Jadi Rebutan
Nama Sama Membawa Perkara
Menyingkap ’Dosa’ Lama Jamsostek
Terjerat Jagung Argentina
Mengintip Beleid Sukuk Negara
Karena Presiden Bukan Raja

Total kewajiban perusahaan kepada lima karyawan itu sebenarnya tidak terlalu ”besar”, yakni Rp 46,5 juta. Namun, menurut Darwin Aritonang, kuasa hukum para pemohon, persoalannya bukan pada besar atau kecilnya utang. Di dalam Undang-undang tentang Kepailitan, demikian Darwin, bila persyaratannya sudah dipenuhi, kreditor bisa mengajukan permohonan pailit. ”Ini bukan tindakan bunuh diri. Perusahaan sudah mati dan tidak membayar gaji karyawan. Jadi, mereka berhak menggugat pailit supaya gaji mereka dibayar,” tegasnya.
Untuk memperkuat permohonannya, Darwin menyebutkan bahwa PT Great River juga memiliki utang ke sejumlah kreditor lain. Sebagai misal Dirjen Pajak, Bank Mega, dan Bank Mandiri. Jadi, ucap Darwin, unsur-unsur yang dipersyaratkan oleh UU Kepailitan untuk menyatakan bahwa perusahaan itu pailit sudah terpenuhi.
Lebih dari itu, Darwin mengungkapkan bahwa apakah mungkin orang yang sudah ditetapkan sebagai Daftar Pencarian Orang (yang dimaksud adalah Sunjoto Tanudjaja, bos PT Great River) itu akan muncul kembali dan menunaikan kewajibannya terhadap karyawan. Apalagi, belum ada kepastian apakah perusahaan itu akan bisa beroperasi kembali mengingat sejumlah asetnya telah dieksekusi oleh Bank Mega.
Sekadar informasi, Pengadilan Negeri Cibinong telah melelang sebagian aset PT Great River. Lelang tersebut dimenangi oleh PT Samudera Biru dengan nilai Rp 47,75 miliar. Lelang itu pun kemudian diprotes oleh karyawan. Awal Juni lalu tak kurang dari 500 orang buruh mendatangi gedung parlemen untuk menyampaikan dugaan adanya rekayasa. Ketua DPC Serikat Pekerja Nasional Kabupaten Bogor, Iwan Kusmawan, yang ikut mendampingi para buruh itu mengungkapkan bahwa sejatinya aset perusahaan garmen itu—yang terdiri dari tanah, bangunan, mesin-mesin, serta peralatannya—nilainya paling sedikit Rp 460 miliar.
Namun, agaknya, ratusan buruh itu mesti bersabar. Benar bahwa sebagian anggota dewan mengamini keluhan yang mereka sampaikan dan menyebut bahwa lelang tersebut cacat hukum. Tapi, anggota Komisi IX DPR hanya memberikan janji untuk meminta klarifikasi dari pengadilan yang melaksanakan lelang tersebut.
Sementara, di mata Darwin, langkah hukum yang tepat untuk menghentikan pelelangan aset itu adalah dengan mengajukan permohonan pailit. Hanya kurator—pihak yang diberikan hak oleh pengadilan niaga untuk mengelola aset perusahaan yang telah dinyatakan pailit—yang bisa menghentikan hak lelang Bank Mega atau Bank Mandiri. Kurator, ujarnya, akan mendata aset dan membayarkan hak karyawan. ”Jika perusahaan tidak dipailitkan, apakah hak-hak karyawan bisa dikembalikan,” cetusnya.
Tentu saja apa yang disampaikan oleh Darwin itu ditepis oleh PT Great River. Endang Susilowati, kuasa hukum perusahaan itu, menyebutkan bahwa kliennya berhenti beroperasi semata-mata disebabkan oleh perbuatan para pemohon yang melakukan aksi mogok kerja dan memaksa karyawan lain untuk menduduki perusahaan. Jadi, demikian Endang, adalah tidak wajar jika kliennya dinyatakan pailit dengan alasan kondisi yang dipaksakan dan diciptakan oleh para pemohon.

BURUH TAK PERNAH MEMBERI KUASA
Endang juga mengungkapkan bahwa sejatinya salah seorang pemohon, yakni Safrudin, sudah pernah mengajukan permohonan pernyataan pailit terhadap PT Great River dengan mengatasnamakan 258 karyawan lainnya. Namun, ratusan buruh yang disebut-sebut setuju untuk mengayun langkah hukum itu membantah memberi kuasa kepadanya. Buntutnya, permohonan itu akhirnya dicabut dan perkara dianggap selesai. Namun, demikian Endang, ternyata permohonan serupa diajukan kembali oleh Safrudin dan empat rekannya.
Selain itu, Endang menilai utang yang didalilkan oleh para pemohon juga sangat kecil alias tidak ada artinya dibandingkan nilai aset kliennya. Bahkan, menurutnya, para pemohon harus bertanggung jawab atas semua kerugian yang timbul akibat aksi yang telah dilakukan. Apalagi, keinginan untuk memailitkan perusahaan itu juga bertentangan dengan harapan dan kepentingan karyawan lain yang jumlahnya sekitar 6.000 orang. ”Mereka tetap ingin agar pabrik dapat berjalan kembali dan berproduksi seperti sedia kala,” tegas Endang seperti tertuang dalam berkas jawabannya.
Apa yang disampaikan oleh Endang itu senada dengan yang diucapkan oleh Martanto. Menurutnya, jika PT Great River dipailitkan, maka yang paling diuntungkan adalah Sunjoto Tanudjaja. Dia bakal terlepas dari kewajiban untuk membayar pesangon ribuan buruh yang nilainya sekitar Rp 180 miliar. Jika perusahaan pailit, katanya, ”Kami bisa tidak mendapat uang pesangon dan pekerjaan lagi”.
Sesungguhnya, tutur Martanto, pihaknya hanya ingin agar perusahaan dapat beroperasi sehingga buruh bisa bekerja kembali. Dan mereka berharap, pemenang baru dalam lelang—yang menurut Martanto adalah Bank Mega—sudi kembali mempekerjakan para karyawan. ”Kami setuju jika perusahaan diambil alih Bank Mega karena teman-teman bisa bekerja kembali,” ujarnya polos.
Sementara, lanjut Martanto, jika perusahaan pailit buruh akan kesulitan kepada siapa dan kapan uang PHK akan dibayarkan. Kami, tuturnya, hanya akan dipaksa menunggu terus, dan itu akan tidak jelas. ”Karena itu kami datang ke pengadilan untuk menolak permohonan pailit yang diajukan oleh lima karyawan tersebut,” tegasnya. 

KARAM LALU MENGHILANG

SEPERTI namanya, awalnya PT Great River International Tbk., adalah perusahaan garmen raksasa yang cukup terpandang. Sejumlah pemilik merek pakaian ternama di dunia pun tak segan-segan untuk memberikan hak kepada gergasi itu untuk memproduksi barang dagangan mereka. Arrow, Triumph, Lee, dan Kenzo adalah beberapa nama dagang yang memberikan kepercayaan ke perusahaan itu.
Namun, sejak awal tahun 2005 lalu, ”kapal” besar itu karam. Berawal dari penghentian perdagangan saham alias suspensi oleh Bursa Efek Jakarta, borok perusahaan itu satu demi satu terbongkar. Suspensi itu sendiri ditetapkan menyusul kegagalan sang ”Sungai Besar” untuk membayar bunga obligasi sebesar Rp 11 miliar yang telah jatuh tempo. Belakangan diketahui bahwa utang perusahaan itu mencapai Rp 600 miliar. Awal Mei 2007 lalu saham perusahaan itu pun dicoret dari lantai bursa.
Setelah melewati serangkaian penyelidikan, Sunjoto Tanudjaja, bos PT Great River, ditetapkan sebagai tersangka. Dia dianggap menabrak sejumlah aturan. Salah satunya mengemplang utang Bank Mandiri. Kepada wartawan beberapa waktu lalu mantan Direktur Utama Bank Mandiri E. C. W. Neloe mengatakan, total utang PT Great River kepada Bank Mandiri mencapai Rp 250 miliar. Utang itu terdiri dari obligasi Great River senilai Rp 50 miliar dan pinjaman Rp 200 miliar. Namun, Neloe yakin piutang itu tak akan bermasalah karena aset Great River diketahui mencapai Rp 1 triliun.
Tapi apa mau dikata, Kejaksaan Agung tetap berkesimpulan bahwa Sunjoto telah melakukan tindak pidana dan akan menyeretnya ke kursi pesakitan. Namun, langkah kejaksaan itu seperti memukul angin. Pengusaha itu telah lebih dahulu menghilang dan hingga kini tak pernah menunjukkan lagi batang hidungnya. 

sumber : http://www.majalahtrust.com/hukum/hukum/1315.php

NICOLAUS COPERNICUS 1473-1543

Seratus Tokoh yang Paling Berpengaruh dalam Sejarah
oleh Michael H. Hart

Indeks Iptek | Indeks Artikel
ISNET Homepage | MEDIA Homepage | Program Kerja | Koleksi | Anggota

24 NICOLAUS COPERNICUS 1473-1543

Astronom (ahli perbintangan) berkebangsaan Polandia yang bernama Nicolaus Copernicus (nama Polandianya: Mikolaj Kopernik), dilahirkan tahun 1473 di kota Torun di tepi sungai Vistula, Polandia. Dia berasal dari keluarga berada. Sebagai anak muda belia, Copernicus belajar di Universitas Cracow, selaku murid yang menaruh minat besar terhadap ihwal ilmu perbintangan. Pada usia dua puluhan dia pergi melawat ke Italia, belajar kedokteran dan hukum di Universitas Bologna dan Padua yang kemudian dapat gelar Doktor dalam hukum gerejani dari Universitas Ferrara. Copernicus menghabiskan sebagian besar waktunya tatkala dewasa selaku staf pegawai Katedral di Frauenburg (istilah Polandia: Frombork), selaku ahli hukum gerejani yang sesungguhnya Copernicus tak pernah jadi astronom profesional, kerja besarnya yang membikin namanya melangit hanyalah berkat kerja sambilan.

Selama berada di Italia, Copernicus sudah berkenalan dengan ide-ide filosof Yunani Aristarchus dari Samos (abad ke-13 SM). Filosof ini berpendapat bahwa bumi dan planit-planit lain berputar mengitari matahari. Copernicus jadi yakin atas kebenaran hipotesa “heliocentris” ini, dan tatkala dia menginjak usia empat puluh tahun dia mulai mengedarkan buah tulisannya diantara teman-temannya dalam bentuk tulisan-tulisan ringkas, mengedepankan cikal bakal gagasannya sendiri tentang masalah itu. Copernicus memerlukan waktu bertahun-tahun melakukan pengamatan, perhitungan cermat yang diperlukan untuk penyusunan buku besarnya De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (Tentang Revolusi Bulatan Benda-benda Langit), yang melukiskan teorinya secara terperinci dan mengedepankan pembuktian-pembuktiannya.

Di tahun 1533, tatkala usianya menginjak enam puluh tahun, Copernicus mengirim berkas catatan-catatan ceramahnya ke Roma. Di situ dia mengemukakan prinsip-prinsip pokok teorinya tanpa mengakibatkan ketidaksetujuan Paus. Baru tatkala umurnya sudah mendekati tujuh puluhan, Copernicus memutuskan penerbitan bukunya, dan baru tepat pada saat meninggalnya dia dikirimi buku cetakan pertamanya dari si penerbit. Ini tanggal 24 Mei 1543.

Dalam buku itu Copernicus dengan tepat mengatakan bahwa bumi berputar pada porosnya, bahwa bulan berputar mengelilingi matahari dan bumi, serta planet-planet lain semuanya berputar mengelilingi matahari. Tapi, seperti halnya para pendahulunya, dia membuat perhitungan yang serampangan mengenai skala peredaran planet mengelilingi matahari. Juga, dia membuat kekeliruan besar karena dia yakin betul bahwa orbit mengandung lingkaran-lingkaran. Jadi, bukan saja teori ini ruwet secara matematik, tapi juga tidak betul. Meski begitu, bukunya lekas mendapat perhatian besar. Para astronom lain pun tergugah, terutama astronom berkebangsaan Denmark, Tycho Brahe, yang melakukan pengamatan lebih teliti dan tepat terhadap gerakan-gerakan planet. Dari data-data hasil pengamatan inilah yang membikin Johannes Kepler akhirnya mampu merumuskan hukum-hukum gerak planet yang tepat.
Sistem alam semesta Copernicus

Meski Aristarchus lebih dari tujuh belas abad lamanya sebelum Copernicus sudah mengemukakan persoalan-persoalan menyangkut hipotesa peredaran benda-benda langit, adalah layak menganggap Copernicuslah orang yang memperoleh penghargaan besar. Sebab, betapapun Aristarchus sudah mengedepankan pelbagai masalah yang mengandung inspirasi, namun dia tak pernah merumuskan teori yang cukup terperinci sehingga punya manfaat dari kacamata ilmiah. Tatkala Copernicus menggarap perhitungan matematik hipotesa-hipotesa secara terperinci, dia berhasil mengubahnya menjadi teori ilmiah yang punya arti dan guna. Dapat digunakan untuk dugaan-dugaan, dapat dibuktikan dengan pengamatan astronomis, dapat bermanfaat di banding lain-lain teori yang terdahulu bahwa dunialah yang jadi sentral ruang angkasa.

Jelaslah dengan demikian, teori Copernicus telah merevolusionerkan konsep kita tentang angkasa luar dan sekaligus sudah merombak pandangan filosofis kita. Namun, dalam hal penilaian mengenai arti penting Copernicus, haruslah diingat bahwa astronomi tidaklah mempunyai jangkauan jauh dalam penggunaan praktis sehari-hari seperti halnya fisika kimia dan biologi. Sebab, hakekatnya orang bisa membikin peralatan televisi, mobil, atau pabrik kimia modern tanpa mesti secuwil pun menggunakan teori Copernicus. (Sebaliknya, orang tidak bakal bisa membikin benda-benda itu tanpa menggunakan buah pikiran Faraday, Maxwell, Lavosier atau Newton).

Tetapi, jika semata-mata kita mengarahkan perhatian hanya semata-mata kepada pengaruh langsung Copernicus di bidang teknologi, kita akan kehilangan arti penting Copernicus yang sesungguhnya. Buku Copernicus punya makna yang tampaknya tak memungkinkan baik Galileo maupun Kepler menyelesaikan kerja ilmiahnya. Kesemua mereka adalah pendahulu-pendahulu yang penting dan menentukan bagi Newton, dan penemuan merekalah yang membikin kemungkinan bagi Newton merumuskan hukum-hukum gerak dan gaya beratnya. Secara historis, penerbitan De Revolutionobus Orbium Coelestium merupakan titik tolak astronomi modern. Lebih dari itu, merupakan titik tolak pengetahuan modern.
Situs Web

* http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Copernicus.html

Seratus Tokoh yang Paling Berpengaruh dalam Sejarah
Michael H. Hart, 1978
Terjemahan H. Mahbub Djunaidi, 1982
PT. Dunia Pustaka Jaya
Jln. Kramat II, No. 31A
Jakarta Pusat
Indeks Iptek | Indeks Artikel ISNET Homepage | MEDIA Homepage | Program Kerja | Koleksi | Anggota

Please direct any suggestion to Media Team

Number of adherents of world religions:

About this site
About us
Our beliefs
Your first visit?
Contact us
External links
Good books
Visitor essays
Our forum
New essays
Other site features
Buy a CD
Vital notes

World religions
BUDDHISM
.
CHRISTIANITY
Who is a Christian?
Shared beliefs
Handle change
Bible topics
Bible inerrancy
Bible harmony
Interpret Bible
Persons
Beliefs, creeds
Da Vinci code
Revelation, 666
Denominations
.
HINDUISM
ISLAM
JUDAISM
WICCA / WITCHCRAFT
Other religions
Other spirituality
Cults and NRMs
Comparing religions

About all religions
Important topics
Basic information
Gods & Goddesses
Handle change
Doubt/security
Quotes
Movies
Confusing terms
Glossary
World’s end
One true religion?
Seasonal topics
Science v. Religion
More info.

Spiritual/ethics
Spirituality
Morality/ethics
Absolute truth

Peace/conflict
Attaining peace
Religious tolerance
Religious hatred
Religious conflict
Religious violence

“Hot” topics
Very hot topics
Ten commandm’ts
Abortion
Assisted suicide
Cloning
Death penalty
Environment
Equal rights – gays & bi’s
Gay marriage
Nudism
Origins of the species
Sex & gender
Sin
Spanking kids
Stem cells
Women-rights
Other topics

Laws and news
Religious laws
Religious news

Web site logo

World Map
RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD:
Numbers of adherents;
names of houses of worship;
names of leaders;
rates of growth…

horizontal rule

horizontal rule
Number of adherents of world religions:

According to David Barrett et al, editors of the “World Christian Encyclopedia: A comparative survey of churches and religions – AD 30 to 2200,” there are 19 major world religions which are subdivided into a total of 270 large religious groups, and many smaller ones. 34,000 separate Christian groups have been identified in the world. “Over half of them are independent churches that are not interested in linking with the big denominations.” 13 Most people in the world follow one of the religions listed in the table below. Included is the name of the religion, the approximate date of its origin, its main sacred or ethical texts (if any) and its estimated numerical strength (both in absolute numbers and as a percentage of the world’s population.)

These data are based on census or public opinion data.1Thus, a person is considered to be of a particular religion if they say that they are of that faith. Thus, about 75% of the adults in both the U.S. and Canada are Christians. Many individuals and religious groups have much more strict definitions for membership. Many conservative Christians believe that one has to be “born again” in order to be counted as a Christian. Using this definition, only about 35% of Americans would be counted as Christians. This difference in definitions between conservative Christians and the rest of the population causes much confusion. Some of the approximately 1,000 Christian faith groups in the U.S. and Canada believe themselves to be the only true Christian denomination. Thus, depending on the definition used, the percentage of Christians in the U.S. are between 0.1 and 75% of the total population.
Pie-chart

Image from the U.S. Center for World Mission Mission Frontiers.org

horizontal rule
Basic information on various religions:
Religion Date Founded Sacred Texts Membership 5 % of World 6
Christianity 30 CE The Bible 2,039 million 32% (dropping)
Islam 622 CE Qur’an & Hadith 1,226 million 19% (growing)
Hinduism 1,500 BCE with truly ancient roots Bhagavad-Gita, Upanishads, & Rig Veda 828 million 13% (stable)
No religion
(Note 1)


None 775 million 12% (dropping)
Chinese folk rel. 270 BCE None 390 million 6%
Buddhism 523 BCE The Tripitaka & Sutras 364 million 6% (stable)
Tribal Religions, Shamanism, Animism Prehistory Oral tradition 232 million 4%
Atheists No date None 150 million 2%
New religions. Various Various 103 million 2%
Sikhism 1500 CE Guru Granth Sahib 23.8 million <1%
Judaism Note 3 Torah, Tanach, & Talmud 14.5 million <1%
Spiritism 12.6 million <1%
Baha’i Faith 1863 CE Alkitab Alaqdas 7.4 million <1%
Confucianism 520 BCE Lun Yu 6.3 million <1%
Jainism 570 BCE Siddhanta, Pakrit 4.3 million <1%
Zoroastrianism 600 to 6000 BCE Avesta 2.7 million <1%
Shinto 500 CE Kojiki, Nohon Shoki 2.7 million <1%
Taoism 550 BCE Tao-te-Ching 2.7 million <1%
Other Various Various 1.1 million <1%
Wicca 800 BCE, 1940 CE None 0.5 million? Religious information > Basic info > here

horizontal rule

Copyright � 1997 to 2007 by Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
Latest update: 2007-JUL-19
Author: B.A. Robinson
line.gif (538 bytes)

Major Religions of the World

Anglican | Catholic | Evangelical | Jehovah’s Witnesses | Latter-day Saints | Orthodox | Pentecostal
Islam | Hinduism | Buddhism | Sikhism | Judaism | Baha’i | Zoroastrianism | more links

Major Religions of the World
Ranked by Number of Adherents
(Sizes shown are approximate estimates, and are here mainly for the purpose of ordering the groups, not providing a definitive number. This list is sociological/statistical in perspective.)

1. Christianity: 2.1 billion
2. Islam: 1.5 billion
3. Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist: 1.1 billion
4. Hinduism: 900 million
5. Chinese traditional religion: 394 million
6. Buddhism: 376 million
7. primal-indigenous: 300 million
8. African Traditional & Diasporic: 100 million
9. Sikhism: 23 million
10. Juche: 19 million
11. Spiritism: 15 million
12. Judaism: 14 million
13. Baha’i: 7 million
14. Jainism: 4.2 million
15. Shinto: 4 million
16. Cao Dai: 4 million
17. Zoroastrianism: 2.6 million
18. Tenrikyo: 2 million
19. Neo-Paganism: 1 million
20. Unitarian-Universalism: 800 thousand
21. Rastafarianism: 600 thousand
22. Scientology: 500 thousand

Introduction
The adherent counts presented in the list above are current estimates of the number of people who have at least a minimal level of self-identification as adherents of the religion. Levels of participation vary within all groups. These numbers tend toward the high end of reasonable worldwide estimates. Valid arguments can be made for different figures, but if the same criteria are used for all groups, the relative order should be the same. Further details and sources are available below and in the Adherents.com main database.

A major source for these estimates is the detailed country-by-country analysis done by David B. Barrett’s religious statistics organization, whose data are published in the Encyclopedia Britannica (including annual updates and yearbooks) and also in the World Christian Encyclopedia (the latest edition of which – published in 2001 – has been consulted). Hundreds of additional sources providing more thorough and detailed research about individual religious groups have also been consulted.

This listing is not a comprehensive list of all religions, only the “major” ones (as defined below). There are distinct religions other than the ones listed above. But this list accounts for the religions of over 98% of the world’s population. Below are listed some religions which are not in this listing (Mandeans, PL Kyodan, Ch’ondogyo, Vodoun, New Age, Seicho-No-Ie, Falun Dafa/Falun Gong, Taoism, Roma), along with explanations for why they do not qualify as “major world religions” on this list.

This world religions listing is derived from the statistics data in the Adherents.com database. The list was created by the same people who collected and organized this database, in consultation with university professors of comparative religions and scholars from different religions. We invite additional input. The Adherents.com collection of religious adherent statistics now has over 43,000 adherent statistic citations, for over 4,300 different faith groups, covering all countries of the world. This is not an absolutely exhaustive compilation of all such data, but it is by far the largest compilation available on the Internet. Various academic researchers and religious representatives regularly share documented adherent statistics with Adherents.com so that their information can be available in a centralized database.

Statistics and geography citations for religions not on this list, as well as subgroups within these religions (such as Catholics, Protestants, Karaites, Wiccans, Shiites, etc.) can be found in the main Adherents.com database.

This document is divided into the following sections:
# Main list of major religions of the world
# Brief explanation/introduction
# Links to alternative lists of world religions
# The Classical World Religions List
# Parameters of this list
# Parameter 1: What is a religion? (for this list)
# — Classical World Religions Ranked by Internal Religious Similarity
# Parameter 2: How is size determined? (for this list)
# Brief discussion of how the size and boundaries of specific religions was determined
# Religious groups not included on the main list
Alternative summary listings of major world religions and numbers of adherents:

* Christian Science Monitor (1998): Top 10 Organized Religions in the World

* Encyclopedia Britannica’s Adherents of All Religions by Six Continents

* Tigerx.com’s Top 10 Religions – A casual but insightful attempt divided along the lines of functional religious cultures rather than classical categorization

* Minnesota State University’s “Religions of the World” website lists the “world’s six major religions” as: Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Animism, Christianity and Hinduism. Read the site’s introduction (from: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/ religion/) here

The Classical World Religions List
There are twelve classical world religions. This is the list of religions described most often in surveys of the subject, and studied in World Religion classes (some of them more for historical rather than contemporary reasons):

* Baha’i
* Buddhism
* Christianity
* Confucianism
* Hinduism
* Islam
* Jainism
* Judaism
* Shinto
* Sikhism
* Taoism
* Zoroastrianism

The “World’s Major Religions” list published in the New York Public Library Student’s Desk Reference is typical of world religion lists which are functionally-oriented, yet still strongly classical (New York: Prentice Hall, 1993; pg. 271):

* Baha’i
* Buddhism
* Confucianism
* Hinduism
* Islam
* Judaism
* Orthodox Eastern Church
* Protestantism
* Catholicism
* Shinto
* Taoism

In modern Western thought, the first writers to divide the world into “world religions” were Christians. Originally, three religions were recognized: Christians, Jews and pagans (i.e., everybody else).

After many centuries, with the increased Western awareness of Eastern history and philosophy, and the development of Islam, other religions were added to the list. Many Far Eastern ways of thought, in fact, were given the status of “world religion” while equally advanced religious cultures in technologically less developed or pre-literate societies (such as in Australia, Africa, South America, and Polynesia) were grouped together as pagans or “animists,” regardless of their actual theology. It’s true that by the standards applied at the time, the Far Eastern religions Westerners encountered were often in a different category altogether than the religions they classified as pagan. One can not directly compare, for example, the local beliefs of the Polynesian islands of Kiribati during the 1500s to the organizational, political, literary and philosophical sophistication of Chinese Taoism during the same period. But one could certainly question whether Japanese Shintoism, as an official “world religion”, was theologically or spiritually more “advanced” than African Yoruba religion, which was classified simply as animism or paganism.

During the 1800s comparative religion scholars increasingly recognized Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism as the most significant “world religions.” Even today, these are considered the “Big Five” and are the religions most likely to be covered in world religion books.

Five smaller or more localized religions/philosophies brought the list of world religions to ten: Confucianism, Taoism, Jainism, Shinto and Zoroastrianism.

Beginning around 1900 comparative religion writers in England began to take note of the Sikhs which had begun to immigrate there from India (part of the British Empire at the time). Sikhs, if mentioned at all, had been classified as a sect of Hinduism during the first three hundred years of their history. But after the influential British writers began to classify Sikhism as a distinct, major world religion, the rest of the world soon followed their example.

Baha’is are the most recent entrant to the “Classical” list. The religion is only about 150 years old. On their official website, Baha’is claim 5 million adherents worldwide, established in 235 countries and territories throughout the world. While most comparative religion textbooks produced during this century either ignore them or group them as a Muslim sect, the most recent books give them separate status and often their own chapter. Baha’is have achieved this status partially through their worldwide geographical spread and increasing numbers, and partially by constantly insisting that they are indeed the “newest world religion.”

The classical set of twelve is not necessarily the most accurate reflection of the present, real-world religious situation. (This fact is briefly addressed below.) We agree with the prominent comparative religion scholar Irving Hexham (an Evangelical Christian, and a professor at the University of Calgary) who wrote:

…there is an overemphasis on certain narrowly defined academic traditions in Religious Studies to the neglect of studies dealing with religion as it actually occurs in the world. In other words academics are happy to study other academics regardless of what is actually happening in everyday life. Thus, for example… I believe that the founder of [the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints], Joseph Smith, is a far more influential figure and deserves as much attention as the father of modern theology, Freidrich Schleiermacher, yet current textbooks and course offerings invariably mention Schleiermacher but rarely pay any attention to Joseph Smith. By recognizing the importance of living religions, popular piety and sociological studies I hope more balance will enter Religious Studies. [Source: Irving Hexham, Concise Dictionary of Religion, 1998.]

The Adherents.com “Major Religions” list presented on this web page differs from classical lists because it draws more from an extremely large body of contemporary affiliation data, rather than relying heavily on the lists and texts of past commentators (Hudson Smith, Noss, Barrett, etc.).

There are many distinct religions or religious movements which have more adherents than some of the classical world religions, but which are not part of the classical list for various reasons. These reasons include:

* the religions which are not included on the classical list are too new (Scientology, Neo-Paganism)

* they are concentrated in only one country (Cao Dai, Ch’ondogyo, Tenrikyo)

* they lack identifiable central organizations or unifying scriptural literature (Neo-Paganism, New Age, Spiritism)

* their adherents primarily name a different, more established traditional religion as their religious preference (most practitioners of Vodoun are nominal Catholics, practitioners of New Age religions are often nominally Protestant, Catholic or Jewish)

* their religion is still strongly associated with a major religion from which it arose, but no longer wishes to be an official part of (Tenrikyo and many other Japanese New Religious Movements, as well as many religions emerging from Indian/Hindu environments)

Parameters of this List
In order to rank religions by size, two parameters must be defined:

1. What constitutes a “religion”?
2. How is “size” determined?

With a working definition of “a religion” and a method for measuring size, criteria for what constitutes a “major” religion must be determined, otherwise this list could be impractically inclusive and long.

“Major religions”, for the purposes of this list, are:

* Large – at least 500,000 adherents
* Widespread – appreciable numbers of members live and worship in more than just one country or limited region
* Independent – the religion is clearly independent and distinct from a broader religion

What is a “religion” for the purposes of this list?
There are countless definitions of religion. But only one can be used in making a ranked list.

We are using the groupings most described used in contemporary comparative religion literature (listed above). Each of these “world religions” is actually a classification of multiple distinct movements, sects, divisions, denominations, etc. None of these world religions is a single, unified, monolithic organization. The diversity within these groupings varies. Hinduism is often described as a collection very different traditions, bound by a geographical and national identity. So broad is this religious “umbrella” that it includes clearly polytheistic, tritheistic, monotheistic, pantheistic, nontheistic, and atheistic traditions.

The Babi & Baha’i tradition, on the other hand, is probably the most unified of the classical world religions. It is almost entirely contained within one very organized, hierarchical denomination, the Bahai Faith, based in Haifa, Israel. But there are small schismatic groups, such asthe Arizona-based “Orthodox” Baha’is, Azali Babis (probably defunct), and four or five others.

All adherents of a single religion usually share at least some commonalities, such as a common historical heritage and some shared doctrines or practices. But these rules can’t be pushed too far before being overburdened by exceptions. A listing of doctrinally and organizationally meaningful divisions or denominational “branches” (such as Catholic, Eastern/Orthodox Christian, Sunni Islam, Shiite Islam, Evangelical Christian, Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, etc.) would clearly be useful, but that is the subject of a different list: Major Branches of Major World Religions.

In the following list the classical world religions are listed with the most cohesive/unified groups first, and the religions with the most internal religious diversity last. This list is based primarily on the degree of doctrinal/theological similarity among all the various sub-groups which belong to these classifications, and to a lesser extent based on diversity in practice, ritual and organization. (Obviously these classifications include both majority manifestations of these religions, as well as subgroups which larger branches sometimes label “heterodox.”)
Classical World Religions Ranked by Internal Religious Similarity:
Most Unified to Most Diverse

1. Baha’i
2. Zoroastrianism
3. Sikhism
4. Islam
5. Jainism
6. Judaism
7. Taoism
8. Shinto
9. Christianity
10. Buddhism
11. Hinduism

No “value judgement” is implied by this list. There are adjectives with both positive and negative connotations which describe both ends of this spectrum. From an academic, comparative religions viewpoint, there is no basis for “prescribing” whether it is better for a religion to be highly unified, cohesive, monolithic, and lacking in internal religious diversity, or whether it is better to be fragmented, schismatic, diverse, multifaceted and abounding in variations on the same theme.

In a practical sense, most people actually practice only one form of whatever religion they belong to. Buddhism, for example, if viewed as a whole, can be understood to have a large amount of internal variation, including the Theravada and Mahayana branches, all of their sub-schools, various revivalist sects, as well as Tibetan and modern Western forms. But most actual Buddhists are not actually involved in all of these; rather they practice one, internally cohesive, fairly unified form, such as the Geluk order of Tibetan Buddhism, or Japanese Amida-Buddha worship.

How is classification done for official government figures? It is important to note that data for the size of various religions within a given country often come from government census figures or official estimates. Such governmental endeavors are interested primarily in physical population demographics, such as how many people live in a household and how many telephones there are per person. These studies are not theological treatises. They merely classify Hindus as all people who call themselves Hindu, Muslims as all people who call themselves Muslim, Christians as all people who call themselves Christian.

From a sociological and historical perspective, most religions have arisen from within existing religious frameworks: Christianity from Judaism, Buddhism from Hinduism, Babi & Baha’i faiths from Islam, etc. For the purposes of defining a religion we need to have some cutoff point. Should Sikhism be listed as a Hindu sect (as in many older textbooks), or a world religion in its own right?

To manage this question we have chosen once again to use the most commonly-recognized divisions in comparative religion texts. These definitions are primarily sociological and historical, NOT doctrinal or theological in nature.

We recognize that within many religious traditions there are deeply felt arguments for excluding certain groups from their description of their religion. For example, councils of Muslim leaders have voted to no longer accept Ahmadis as valid Muslims, although Ahmadis consider themselves orthodox Muslims. Many Evangelical Protestants churches exclude all non-Evangelical or non-Protestant groups from their definitions of Christianity. On the other hand, some Hindu writers are so inclusive that they claim as Hindus adherents of any religion that arose in a Hindu environment, including Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs. These definitions are theological in nature and of little use in this statistical context.

Groups such as Rastafarians, Mandeans, Tenrikyo, and the Church of Scientology are too small, too new or too unimportant in world history to be included in most surveys of “major world religions.” Thus, in including such groups in this listing it is not always possible to appeal to a consensus within comparative religion literature. Where classification is unclear, we’ve used two criteria:

1. 1. Does the faith group consider itself to be part of (or the definitive version of) a larger religion?
2. 2. Does the larger religion consider the faith group to be part of its tradition?

If the answer to both of these questions is no, then the faith group is probably a distinct religion. If the answer to both questions is yes, the faith group is a division within the larger religion (and thus not a world religion, but a division of a world religion). If the answer to only one of the questions is yes, there is a judgment call to be made, but of course we give more weight to a group’s self-concept.

For example, Tenrikyo arose in the 1830s in Japan in a Shinto context. The founder explained that her new revelations came from various Shinto kami (gods). Thus, Tenrikyo was classified by the Japanese ministry of religion as a Shinto sect for about one hundred years. Then the leaders of Tenrikyo asked that the faith no longer be classified as a Shinto faith. Outsiders would agree that Tenrikyo has emerged as something identifiably distinct from traditional Shinto religion, although many world religion writers include Tenrikyo in chapters on Shinto or Japanese religion for simplicity’s sake. (These books can only have a limited number of chapters.) Based on these facts (and because we have no limit on the number of religions we can include on this list), we include Tenrikyo as a distinct religion.

Even fairly contemporary and progressive writers have a “youth cut-off” requirement for their listings of major world religions. Many writers will classify newer movements as NRMs (“New Religious Movements”), and reserve the label of “world religion” for “long established” religions. (Given the content of these lists, one must assume “long established” means “at least as old as the Babi & Baha’i faiths.”) This is a valid criterion, although for the most part we are not using it here. Many of the movements that seem like distinct new religions may die out within a few generations. Many of the most recent movements, such as Seicho-No-Ie, Ananaikyo, Ch’ondogyo and other Asian new religious movements are overtly syncretistic or universalist, similar in some ways to but originating many years later than the Baha’i faith. Other new religious movements of this century have primarily remained within established world religions, such as new Buddhist (Western Buddhist Order), Hindu (Hare Krishna), Muslim (Nation of Islam), Jewish (Reconstructionism), and Christian (Pentecostalism, neo-Evangelicalism, Calvary Chapel) movements and denominations. Other new religious movements of the 20th century, especially recently, have been new formulations of long-dormant faiths, such as Neo-Pagan and neo-Shamanist groups. Scientology, is one of the few movements of the 20th century that has grown large enough and escaped its predecessor religious matrix thoroughly enough to be considered a distinct world religion. Even its oft-criticized differences lend credence to the notion that it is truly a unique, new religion, and not a part of Hinduism, Buddhism or some other faith.

But Ahmadiyya (a recent offshoot of Islam), is not included on this list as a separate religion because its adherents claim to be Muslim, view themselves as completely Muslim, and wish to be classified as part of Islam.

Also, in keeping with the sociological perspective of Adherents.com, we are applying Emil Durkheim’s classical definition of religion as “a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden–beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community…”

To this definition, we add its more recent reformulation describing religion as an ultimate concern with transformational/motivational effect. With these sociological (non-theological) definitions we could include in this list schools of thought which aren’t always considered “religions,” such as atheism, humanism, Communism/Marxism/Maoism, and Confucianism.

Those interested in reading further about the sociological definition of religion and its relationship to culture may read Denise Cush’s article in DISKUS (vol. 5, 1999): “Potential Pioneers of Pluralism: The Contribution of Religious Education to Intercultural Education in Multicultural Societies.” Useful information about cultures can also be found in John B. Gatewood’s Intracultural Variability and Problem-Solving, which repeats the Kluckhohn-Murray aphorism (1953):

Every human is in certain respects
a. like all other humans.
b. like some other humans.
c. like no other human.

How is the size of a religion determined for the purposes of this list?
When referring to the “size” of a religion, what is usually meant is its number of adherents. Other measurements, such as how many churches or meeting places a faith group owns or how many congregations/meeting groups there are, can also be instructive, but are usually not used as a measure of overall size. Measures of religiosity and the degree to which a religious tradition has a meaningful impact on its adherents may be more important than raw adherent counts, but such measures are not as readily available nor are they easily comparable between groups.

A detailed description of what an adherent is, and the different types/levels of adherents can be found on the FAQ page.
How are adherents counted?
There are five main methods for determining the number of adherents in a faith group:

1. Organizational reporting: Religious bodies (such as churches or denominations) are asked how many adherents or members they have. This is the simplest and least expensive method, but it can be highly unreliable. Different faith groups measure membership differently. Some count as members only those who are actively attending services or who have passed through a lengthy initiation process. Others groups count all who have been baptized as infants and are thus on the church records, even though some of those people may have joined other faith groups as adults. Some groups over-report membership and others under-report membership. When asked what religion they consider themselves to be a part of, many may name a religion that does not have them on their rolls. In the United States, for instance, three times as many people claim to be Unitarian Universalists than are actually on church records.

2. Census records: Many countries periodically conduct a comprehensive household-by-household census. Religious preference is often a question included in these census counts. This is a highly reliable method for determining the religious self-identification of a given population. But censuses are usually conducted infrequently. The latest census may be too old to indicate recent trends in religious membership. Also, many countries either have no accurate census data, or do not include questions regarding religious affiliation. It has been over fifty years since the United States included such a question in its national census, but Canada, India, New Zealand, Australia and other countries have very thorough, recent census data on the topic.

3. Polls and Surveys: Statistical sampling using surveys and polls are used to determine affiliation based on religious self-identification. The accuracy of these surveys depends largely on the quality of the study and especially the size of the sample population. Rarely are statistical surveys of religious affiliation done with large enough sample sizes to accurately count the adherents of small minority religious groups.

4. Estimates based on indirect data: Many adherent counts are only obtained by estimates based on indirect data rather than direct questioning or directly from membership roles. Wiccan groups have traditionally been secretive and often their numbers can only be estimated based on magazine circulations, attendance at conferences, etc. The counts of many ethnic-based faith groups such as tribal religions are generally based on the size of associated ethnic groups. Adherents of some tribal religions (such as Yoruba) are sometimes counted simply by counting the members of the tribe and assuming everybody in it is an adherent of the religion. Counts of Eastern Orthodox religious bodies are often done the same way. Such estimates may be highly unreliable.

5. Field work: To count some small groups, or to count the number of adherents a larger group has within a specific geographical area, researchers sometimes do “field work” to count adherents. This is often the only way to count members of small tribal groups or semi-secretive, publicity-shy sects. Field work may involve contacting leaders of individual congregations, temples, etc., conducting interviews with adherents, counting living within enclaves of the group, or counting those participating in key activities. There is substantial overlap between “estimates” and “field work.”

For the purposes of this list of major religions, we have used adherent counts or estimates based on self-identification. We have also favored inclusive rather than exclusive adherent counts (meaning all people who are part of a religious community, children as well as adults, rather than “full communicants”). It should be remembered, however, that self-identification is not the only legitimate measure of a religious group’s size. In collecting census or survey data based on self-identification statisticians find that nearly everybody claims to belong to a religion. Some people claiming membership in a certain denomination may actually attend religious services regularly, contribute resources to the group, and be influenced by its teachings. Other people may name the denomination, but choose it as their religion only because they recall its name as the church their grandfather attended as boy. Detailed analysis of the size of individual groups requires a knowledge of both self-identification data as well as data based on organizational reporting.

Finally, let me make it clear that these definitions are simply working definitions for the purposes of making this list. They should not be taken as definitive outside of this context. Many of our reasons for defining the parameters as we have done have to do with the availability of data. Other definitions and parameters may be more meaningful or useful in other situations.
Notes on the Size of Specific Religions
NOTE: The following material is not intended to provide descriptions or summaries of these religions. This material is only intended to describe the reasoning for listing groups as “major religions” and determining their general size. (To learn more about these faith groups, we suggest the Adherents.com links page, which will direct you to other web sites.)

Christianity: David B. Barrett’s World Christian Encyclopedia (1994 update) gives an oft-cited figure of 1.9 billion Christians (or about 33% of the world population), and projected that by the year 2000 there will be 2.1 billion Christians in the world. The 2001 edition of the World Christian Encyclopedia stated there were 2.1 billion Christians in the world, or 33% of the total population. Regardless of the degree of accuracy of this figure, Christianity, if taken as a whole, is unarguably the largest world religion – the largest religion in the world. (Keep in mind that although Christianity is the world’s largest religion, it is an umbrella term that comprises many different branches and denominations.)

See also: The Christian Family Tree by Rev. Epke VanderBerg (Episcopal minister, Grand Rapids, MI); Classifying Protestant Denominations (General Social Survey project directed by James A. Davis and Tom W. Smith. Funded by the National Science Foundation.); Largest Christian Populations (lists the Top 10 Countries with the Most Christians and the Top 10 U.S. Most Christian U.S. States); Famous Christians.

For statistical purposes: Groups which self-identify as part of Christianity include (but are not limited to): African Independent Churches (AICs), the Aglipayan Church, Amish, Anglicans, Armenian Apostolic, Assemblies of God; Baptists, Calvary Chapel, Catholics, Christadelphians, Christian Science, the Community of Christ, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (“Mormons”), Coptic Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches, Ethiopian Orthodox, Evangelicals, Iglesia ni Cristo, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Local Church, Lutherans, Methodists, Monophysites, Nestorians, the New Apostolic Church, Pentecostals, Plymouth Brethren, Presbyterians, the Salvation Army, Seventh-Day Adventists, Shakers, Stone-Campbell churches (Disciples of Christ; Churches of Christ; the “Christian Church and Churches of Christ”; the International Church of Christ); Uniate churches, United Church of Christ/Congregationalists, the Unity Church, Universal Church of the Kingdom of God, Vineyard churches and others. These groups exhibit varying degrees of similarity, cooporation, communion, etc. with other groups. None are known to consider all other Chrisian sub-groups to be equally valid. David Barrett, an Evangelical Christian who is the compiler of religion statistics for the Encyclopedia Britannica and the World Christian Encyclopedia, includes all of the groups listed above in the worldwide statistics for Christianity.

Contemporary sociolgists and religious leaders generally consider pan-denominational classifications based not on historical denominational divisions but on current theological positions, organizational alignments, etc. to be more relevant. Such groupings include: Evangelicals, Pentecostals, “Great Commission Christians”, “C. S. Lewis Christians”, Liberal Protestants, Conservative Protestants, Fundamentalists, etc.

Islam: Contemporary figures for Islam are usually between 1 billion and 1.8 billion, with 1 billion being a figure frequently given in many comparative religion texts, probably because it’s such a nice, round number. That figure appears to be dated, however. Relatively high birth rates in Muslim countries continue to make Islam a fast-growing religion. The largest and best known branches of Islam are Sunni and Shi’ite. More.

Many Muslims (and some non-Muslim) observers claim that there are more practicing Muslims than practicing Christians in the world. Adherents.com has no reason to dispute this. It seems likely, but we would point out that there are different opinions on the matter, and a Muslim may define “practicing” differently than a Christian. In any case, the primary criterion for the rankings on this page is self-identification, which has nothing to do with practice.

Smaller groups within Islam include Sufis (although some Sufis regard their practice of Sufism as pan-denominational or non-denominational), Druze, the U.S.-based Nation of Islam (previously known as “Black Muslims”), and Ahmadiyya. As is true with all major religions, there are adherents within all branches of Islam who consider some of or all of the other branches heterodox or not actually part of their religion. But these classifications are based primarily on historical lineage and self-identification. Protestations and disagreements based on exclusivistic internal concepts of belief or practice are normal, but are largely immaterial with regards to historical, taxonomic and statistical classification.

Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist: This is a highly disparate group and not a single religion. Although atheists are a small subset of this grouping, this category is not synonymous with atheism. People who specify atheism as their religious preference actually make up less than one-half of one percent of the population in many countries where much large numbers claim no religious preference, such as the United States (13.2% nonreligious according to ARIS study of 2001) and Australia (15% nonreligious).

Pitzer College sociologist Phil Zuckerman compiled country-by-country survey, polling and census numbers relating to atheism, agnosticism, disbelief in God and people who state they are non-religious or have no religious preference. These data were published in the chapter titled “Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns” in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005). Different type of data collection methodologies using different types of questions showed a consistent pattern: In most countries only a tiny number of people (zero to a fraction of 1 percent) will answer “atheism” or “atheist” when asked an open-ended question about what their religious preference. A slightly larger number of people will answer “yes” if asked pointedly if they are an atheist. A slightly larger number than that will answer “no” when asked if they believe in any type of God, deities, or Higher Power. A slightly larger number answer “no” when asked simply if they “believe in God” (omitting wording indicating more nebulous, less anthropomorphic conceptions of divinity). Finally, a larger number of people answer “none” or “non-religious” when asked asked an open-ended queston about what their religious preference is. Although figures vary for each country, average numbers indicate that roughly half of the people who self-identify as “nonreligious” also answer “yes” when asked if they believe in God or a Higher Power.

One portion of this broad grouping includes those who are best described as “nonreligious,” i.e., those who are essentially passive with regards to organized religion, generally affirming neither belief nor disbelief. They may be neither contemplative about philosophy and spirituality nor involved in a religious/faith/philosophical community. Although a certain percentage of people in many countries classify themselves as nonreligious in surveys, there are few data indicating how many of these fit the passive “nonreligious” criteria described above, versus those who actually do contemplate such matters, but simply have their own personal philosophy and no stated affiliation with an organized religion.

For the purposes of this list, this grouping also includes more proactive or well-defined philosophies such as secular humanism, atheism, agnosticism, deism, pantheism, freethought, etc., most of which can be classified as religions in the sociological sense, albeit secular religions. A minority among atheists are quite fervent in their beliefs and actively endeavor to proselytize atheism.

The “Secular/Nonreligious/etc.” category is probably the most speculative estimate in this list, as this segment of society is difficult to count. The vast majority in this grouping are not aligned with any kind of membership organization. Most figures come from census and survey data, which most countries conduct only infrequently.

The highest figure we have for “Nonreligious” is 20% of the world population, or about 1.2 billion: “Over 20 percent of the world’s population does not claim any allegiance to a religion. Most are agnostics. Others are atheists, who deny the existence of God.” (O’Brien, Joanne & Martin Palmer. The State of Religion Atlas. Simon & Schuster: New York (1993). Pg 41.) But such a high figure is difficult to support with current country-by-country statistics, and perhaps reflects Communist-era official government statistics. Most current estimates of the world number of secular/nonreligious/agnostic/atheist/etc. are between 800 and 1 billion.

Estimates for atheism alone (as a primary religious preference) range from 200 to 240 million. But these come primarily from China and former Soviet Union nations (especially Russia). Prior to Communist takeovers of these regions and government attempts to eradicate religion, both places had very high levels of affiliation with organized religions (especially Islam, Christianity, Buddhism and Taoism), as well as high levels of participation in and belief in traditional local traditions such as shamanism, ancestor ceremonies, spiritism, etc. Since the fall of Communism in former Soviet nations and the relaxation of anti-religious policies in China, observed religious affiliation and activity has increased dramatically, especially in Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam.

China probably does have the largest number of actual atheists of any country in the world and many Russians clearly remain atheists. But at this point, it is difficult to accurately determine how many of those classified as atheists or nonreligious during Communist-era USSR and by the current Chinese government are actually atheists according to their personal beliefs, and how many are unregistered religious adherents or participants in less-organized traditional systems that are oriented around ancestors, animism, shamanism, etc. Many people are unaware, for instance, that China has one of the largest, most active Christian communities in the world, and that in many former Soviet nations religions such as shamanism, Islam and Russian Orthodoxy remained even while official government reports announced the elimination of religion in these regions.

In the Western world, Europe is by far the place with the most self-avowed nonreligious, atheists and agnostics, with the nonreligious proportion of the population particularly high in Scandinavia. The Encyclopedia Britannica reports approximately 41 million atheists in Europe. The self-described nonreligious segment of society in Australia and New Zealand is also high, at around 15%. In Australia less than a tenth of one percent described themselves as atheists in the latest national census (1996). In the U.S. about 13.2% of the population describe themselves as nonreligious, 0.5% describe themselves as agnostic, and a smaller number describe themselves as atheist (Kosmin, ARIS/American Religious Identification Survey, City University of New York, 2001).

Zuckerman (2005) compiled numbers of people who don’t believe in God, based primarily on polling and survey data, for every country in the world. He totaled the survey-based and poll-based estimates of non-believers from the top 50 countries with the highest proportion of people who do not believe in God, and added to this number the non-believers from highly populous countries (Mexico, Poland, Moldova Romania, Georgia, Uzbekistan, India, Ireland, and Chile). The remaining countries had proportionately miniscule populations of atheists/agnostics/non-believers. Zuckerman concluded, “the grand total worldwide number of atheists, agnostics, and non-believers in God is somewhere between 504,962,830 and 749,247,571. These minimum/maximum numbers are conservative estimates; were one to factor in a mere .25% of such highly populated countries as Egypt, Brazil, Indonesia, Nigeria, Burma, Tanzania, and Iran, as non-believers in God, estimates would be significantly larger. Also, these numbers are only for non-believers of God, specifically. Were one to include all ‘non-religious’ people in general, the numbers would nearly double… nonbelievers in God as a group come in fourth place after Christianity (2 billion), Islam (1.2 billion), and Hinduism (900 million) in terms of global ranking of commonly-held belief systems.”

Zuckerman states that adding the “non-religious” segment of the world population would to his calculated maximum of 749,247,571 (about 750 million) atheists, agnostic and non-believers in God would yield a number nearly twice as large — just under 1.5 billion. This number is not, however, the number of people who should be classified in the “Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist” category, because half of this larger number is based solely on belief in a single theological proposition (belief/non-belief in God), rather than on a person’s religious affiliation/religious preference. A large proportion of people in the surveys Zuckerman combined to arrive at this total expressly are adherents of named religions (such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Chinese traditional religion, Unitarianism and Christianity). Many of these people who do not believe in God, deities, or a Higher Power are nevertheless devout adherents of their various faiths, or even clergy. They are enumerated in the list above as adherents of those faiths, and not counted among nonreligious, atheists or agnostics because their primary religious identity is not atheism or agnosticism. It should be remembered that not all strains of all religions entail belief in God, a Higher Power or deities.

It can not be said based on Zuckerman’s analysis that “1.5 billion people do not believe in God.” A large proportion of the people classified as “non-religious” expressly do believe in God or a Higher Power. The 750 million figure is already an attempt to estimate the total population of people who do not believe in God.

For the year 2000, David B. Barrett (Encyclopedia Britannica and World Christian Encyclopedia, 2001) classified 150,089,508 (2.5% of world’s population) as atheists, and 768,158,954 people as “Nonreligious” (12.7% of the world) for a total of 918,248,462 (15.2% of the world). These calculations by Barrett include all agnostics and others in our “Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist” category. Our figure of 1.1 billion in this category is considerably higher, and takes into consideration Zuckerman’s analysis as well. Of the people in this grouping, it is estimated that 40 to 50% have a stated traditionally “theistic” belief in God, deities or a Higher Power.

A country-by-country breakdown of statistics atheists, agnostics, people who do not believe in God, and self-described non-religious people, with figures based mostly on surveys and polling data, can be found online in the Adherents.com main database. A summary page shows data for the 50 countries with the most atheists.

All those who profess religious belief are not necessarily registered members of a church or denomination, but in the U.S. the majority of professed Christians and adherents of other religions are also officially affiliated with an organization. The majority of agnostics, atheists and of course nonreligious are not members of an organization associated with their position.

It may also be noted that the estimated figures presented in this particular “Major Religions” summary list are based on self-identification. Among all groups there exists a proportion (sometimes significant and sometimes small) which are only nominal adherents. This segment may identify themselves as members of a certain religion and accept the religion as their primary philosophical system, yet not actively practice the religion in the normative sense. This segment may be thought of as being functionally nonreligious or “secularized,” but this segment is not what is meant by the “nonreligious” category on this Major Religious list. Accurate estimates of the size of this group are difficult to obtain because national government censuses only ask about preferred affiliation, not about religious practice. There are data available from non-census sampling surveys that ask about practice and belief, but these are usually limited in scope to narrow questions such as church attendance, and do not entirely reveal the proportion of society which is non-attending, but nevertheless privately practicing and/or believing. In many countries (Germany is a good example) there is also segment of the population which is counted as adherents of a religion, but which do not personally profess belief in that religion. (Adherents.com has some such data in its main list under “attendance” and under “poll”.)

The use of the term “nonreligious” or “secular” here refers to belief or participation in systems which are not traditionally labeled “religions.” Of course, in the absence of traditional religions, society exhibits the same behavioral, social and psychological phenomena associated with religious cultures, but in association with secular, political, ethnic, commercial or other systems. Marxism and Maoism, for instance, had their scriptures, authority, symbolism, liturgy, clergy, prophets, proselyting, etc. Sports, art, patriotism, music, drugs, mass media and social causes have all been observed to fulfill roles similar to religion in the lives of individuals — capturing the imagination and serving as a source of values, beliefs and social interaction. In a broader sense, sociologists point out that there are no truly “secular societies,” and that the word “nonreligious” is a misnomer. Sociologically speaking, “nonreligious” people are simply those who derive their worldview and value system primarily from alternative, secular, cultural or otherwise nonrevealed systems (“religions”) rather than traditional religious systems. Like traditional religions, secular systems (such as Communism, Platonism, Freudian psychology, Nazism, pantheism, atheism, nationalism, etc.) typically have favored spokespeople and typically claim to present a universally valid and applicable Truth. Like traditional religions, secular systems are subject to both rapid and gradual changes in popularity, modification, and extinction.

These are some of the factors which make estimating the size of the secular (nonreligious, agnostic, atheist, etc.) segment of society difficult.

Detailed statistics on atheism can be found in papers by Phil Zuckerman (Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns) and Andrew Greeley and Wolfgang Jagodzinski (The Demand for Religion: Hard Core Atheism and “Supply Side” Theory).

Hinduism: The highest figure we’ve seen for Hinduism (1.4 billion, Clarke, Peter B., editor), The Religions of the World: Understanding the Living Faiths, Marshall Editions Limited: USA (1993); pg. 125.) is actually higher than the highest figure we’ve seen for Islam. But this is an abberation. World Hinduism adherent figures are usually between 850 million and one billion. More.

Buddhism: World estimates for Buddhism vary between 230 and 500 million, with most around 350 million. More.

Chinese traditional religion: In older world religion books the estimates of the total number of adherents of Confucianism range up to 350 million. Other books, including older versions of the Encyclopedia Britannica, have listed Chinese religionists under “Taoism,” with adherent estimates up to about 200 million. But these figures are all based on counts of the same segment of Chinese people throughout the world — people practicing what is, sociologically, more accurately called Chinese traditional religion, and often called Chinese folk religion. The word “traditional” is preferable to “folk” because “folk” might imply only the local, tribal customs and beliefs such as ancestor worship and nature beliefs. But “Chinese traditional religion” is meant to categorize the common religion of the majority Chinese culture: a combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, as well as the traditional non-scriptural/local practices and beliefs. For most religious Chinese who do not explicitly follow a different religion such as Islam or Christianity, these different ancient Chinese philosophies and traditions form a single, seamless composite religious culture and worldview.

Communist laws banning most religion and recent rapid changes introducing increasing openness make accurate estimates difficult to obtain. Recent figures for the number of “Chinese religionists” include 220 and 225 million. Barrett (World Christian Encyclopedia, 2001) classified 384,806,732 “Chinese folk-religionists,” 6,298,597 “Confucianists” and 2,654,514 “Taoists,” or about 394 million total.

In comparative religion texts Confucianism, Taoism and Chinese Buddhism are sometimes addressed in three separate chapters, and sometimes treated in one chapter as “Chinese religion.” Even today there are very valid reasons for distinguishing Taoism from Confucianism, and distinguishing both from Chinese Buddhism and non-scriptural Chinese folk religion. For religious, philosophical, historical and scriptural purposes, distinguishing between these separate traditions is quite manageable. There are a number of people who identify themselves specifically as “Taoist” (In 1990-1991 there were 23,000 in the U.S., 1,720 in Canada, and 324 in New Zealand, for example.) There are a smaller number of people, including non-Chinese, who consciously practice a “pure” form of Taoist religion (often Tao-Te-Ching-based), unconcerned with Confucianism, Chinese folk practices, ancestor devotion, etc.

Fifty years ago religious Taoism was one of the largest, strongest institutions in China. Since the Cultural Revolution and the government’s campaign to destroy non-Communist religion, Taoism lost, for the most part, the main mechanism through which it remained distinct from the larger Chinese religious environment: its large numbers of temples and Taoist clergy. Although Islam, Buddhism and Christianity have bounced back and even surpassed pre-Communist levels in China, Taoism has not. Today, despite the existence of some self-identified Taoists and pure Taoists in the West, Taoism is difficult to isolate as a large, independent religion from a statistical and sociological perspective. Hence, in this list, which is explicitly statistical and sociological in perspective, Taoism should be thought of as a major branch of Chinese traditional religion.

The situation is similar with Confucianism. In the latest edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica lists over 5 million Confucianists in its summary table of world religions. Their note explains that these are Confucianists outside of China, mostly in Korea. (The Encyclopedia lists “Chinese folk religion” separately.) It is true that recent census data show about five million Koreans name Confucianism as their religion, and there are even some Confucian schools and institutes in Korea. But the Adherents.com list leaves these Confucianists under the “Chinese traditional religion” grouping, rather than separating them based only on what country they live in.

primal-indigenous: Alternatively termed “tribal religionists, “ethnic religionists,” or “animists,” estimates range from 100 million to 457 million. (457 million is the combined total for “Ethnoreligionists,” “Animists,” and “Shamanists” from Barrett’s 2001 world religion calculations. But this total includes all African Traditional religionists, which we have listed as a separate category.) This group also includes, but is not limited to, people whose native religion is a form of shamanism or paganism (such as millions of people in traditional Siberian shamanist cultures). Obviously this is broad classification, not a single religion. This grouping includes thousands of distinct religious traditions, mostly the religious-cultural worldviews of peoples who have been grouped together in one category because they are pre-literate or less advanced technologically than Western/European cultures. There are similarities among many primal-indigenous religions/cultures, such as use of an oral rather than written canon, and a lack of rigid boundaries between the sacred and secular (profane) aspects of life. But few, if any, generalizations hold for all groups.

Previously, adherents of African traditional religion were grouped here, and many religious statisticians would continue to do so. But adherents of African traditional religions and diasporic derivatives are currently listed ennumerated separately on this page. [See below.] Most remaining primal-indigenous religionists are in Asia (including India).

African Traditional & African Diasporic Religions: It may seem incongruous to distinguish African primal (traditional) religions from the general primal-indigenous category. But the “primal-indigenous” religions are primarily tribal and composed of pre-technological peoples. While there is certainly overlap between this category and non-African primal-indigenous religious adherents, there are reasons for separating the two, best illustrated by focusing specifically on Yoruba, which is probably the largest African traditional religious/tribal complex. Yoruba was the religion of the vast Yoruba nation states which existed before European colonialism and its practitioners today — certainly those in the Caribbean, South America and the U.S.– are integrated into a technological, industrial society, yet still proclaim affiliation to this African-based religious system. Cohesive rituals, beliefs and organization were spread throughout the world of Yoruba (and other major African religious/tribal groups such as Fon), to an extent characteristic of nations and many organized religions, not simply tribes. Historians might point to Shinto and even Judaism as the modern manifestations of what originally began as the religions of tribal groups who then became nations.

Just as Yoruba may legitimately be distinguished from the general “primal-indigenous” classification, valid arguments could be made that other religious traditions such as Native American religion (less than 100,000 self-identified U.S. adherents) and Siberian shamanism should also be separate. But African traditional religion has been singled out because of its much larger size, its considerable spread far beyond its region of origin and the remarkable degree to which it remains an influential, identifiable religion even today.

African Diasporic Religions are those which have arisen, typically in the Western hemisphere, among Africans who retained much of their traditional culture and beliefs but adapted to new environments. These include Santeria, Candomble, Vodoun, Shango, etc. In many areas or subgroups the African elements exist alongside an overlay of European-based elements borrowed from the economically dominant culture, from influences such as Catholicism and Kardecian spiritism. The fact that these religions exist within technologically advanced cultures alongside “classical” organized religions (such as Christianity) is one of the reasons for grouping these adherents separately from the general “primal-indigenous” category. Adherents of African diasporic religions typically have no real tribal affiliation, may be converts to African-based religion, and are not necessarily African or black in their race and ethnicity.

Regarding Santeria alone: It is difficult to determine worldwide numbers of Santerians, as the religion is syncretistic, goes by different names (including Lukumi, and Camdomble in Brazil) and has been actively suppressed by the Communist government in the country where it is perhaps the largest: Cuba. Estimates of Santerians include 800,000 in the U.S. and one million in Brazil, plus 3 million in Cuba (although many Cuban practitioners identify themselves officially as Catholics or Communists/atheists). A worldwide number of people who at least sometimes self-identify as adherents of this loosely-organized religious category might be 3 million, but this is just an estimate.

Regarding Vodoun: For the most part, Voodoo (or “Vodoun”) is not an organized religion, but a form of African traditional religion practiced primarily in Haiti, Cuba and Benin. Often blended with Catholicism. Other methods of counting adherents could count practitioners as general primal-indigenous religionists (tribal) and/or Christians. Vodoun is typically classified as an Afro-Caribbean and/or Afro-Brazilian syncretistic religion, along with Santeria (Lukumi) and Candomble. Some sources refer to Vodoun as the Haitian form of Santeria; other sources refer to Santeria as a form of Vodoun. From a worldwide and historical perspective, Vodoun is properly classified as a branch of African diasporic religion, in the same way that Lutheranism is a subset of Christianity.

Regarding the number of practitioners, the ReligiousTolerance.org web page about Vodoun states: “50 million. Estimates of the number of adherents are hopelessly unreliable. Some sources give numbers in the range of 2.8 to 3.2 million.” A figure of 50 million is doubtful because this is primarily a Caribbean religious movement and there are only 30 million people in the Caribbean, the majority of whom are clearly self-identified Christians.

In the Americas (especially the Caribbean, Brazil and the United States), there is a large number of people who practice some form of Yoruba diasporan religion, especially forms of Santeria and Vodoun. But it should be noted that many practitioners of Voodoo would name something else, i.e. Catholicism, as their religion. Even those who practice Santeria or Voodoo more often then they practice Catholicism mostly identify themselves as Catholic.

We asked an expert for feedback about our comments on Yoruba religion. Osunmilaya, a practitioner and scholar on the subject wrote:

I would make only a few changes. Instead of the term “Santerian” perhaps the term “ab’orisha,” which refers to both initiated and uninitiated devotees, would be more acceptable. Some practitioners don’t like the term Santeria at all because it implies that the tradition is a minor, heretical sect of Catholicism.

Vodoun is more properly classified as Dahomean and Fon in origin, not Yoruba. It does not appear in Brazil in the Haitian form, to my admittedly limited knowledge of this tradition. However, some Candomble houses may identify as Dahomean nation.

A critical component of the spiritist influence upon the Yoruba traditions as practiced in the Western hemisphere is the pervasive influence of the BaKongo tradition, known as Palo Monte and Umbanda. What I have seen in practice has a lot of Kardecian influence, but I expect to see what I observed with the Santeria tradition: that as one becomes more immersed into the actual tradition, that the outer layer of Catholicism peels away to reveal a tradition that, in reality, is very much unsyncretized. (See Wande Abimbola’s discussion in Ifa Will Mend Our Broken World.)

Osunmilaya’s comments are very helpful. The only comment we might add is that there are knowledgeable historians of Yoruba religion in the West who believe Yoruba, in addition to the Dahomean and Fon traditions, played a major role in the development of modern Africa-Haitian religion.

The point about use of the term “Santerian” is an important one to keep in mind. Although “Santeria” is commonly used in comparative religion/academic literature, and it is becoming increasingly accepted among practitioners of the Western Yoruba/Orisha religious tradition, it is a term imposed by outsiders and its etymological roots have meaning that many in the tradition find offensive or at least inaccurate.

Spiritism: According to the 1997 Encyclopedia Britannica Book of the Year, there were 10,292,500 adherents of “Spiritism” in the world. But a recent census from Brazil indicates 15 million professed spiritists (practitioners of Umbanda, for instance), as well as a fringe following (not officially professed, but possibly quite avid) of up to 50 million. But many of those can be classified in the Yoruba religion category. As a newer and somewhat less organized grouping than some other “major religions,” accurate numbers for Spiritism are difficult to come by. An estimate of 20 million worldwide seems justifiable–a grouping which would include but not be limited to strictly Kardecian groups. But a worldwide number which eliminated adherents who are primarily Yoruba religionists more so than Spiritists would be smaller, and more in line with the Encyclopedia Britannica estimate. Key aspects of Spiritism, or Spiritualism, are widely accepted in popular society in many countries beyond the bounds of those who are officially adherents of these movements. The boundaries between Spiritism and other categories, especially Christianity (especially Catholic and Baptist), Yoruba religion and primal-indigenous religions, can be quite uncertain.

Sikhism: In the late 1990s the highest estimate we had for the number of Sikhs in the world was 20 million, from http://www.sikhs.org. Most estimates were between 16 and 18 million. About 80% of the world’s Sikhs live in the province of Punjab, in India. Barrett’s latest publications estimate 23 million Sikhs worldwide. More.

Juche: This section moved to separate Juche page due to length.

Judaism: Estimates of the world’s Jewish population range from about 12 million to over 17 million. On the high end of realistic estimates of how many people would consider themselves Jews seems to be about 15 million, but a figure this high would include a large number of non-practicing, purely ethnic Jews. Judaism is far more important in areas such as history, literature, science, politics, and religion, than its relatively small numbers might suggest. The American Jewish Year Book published in 2000 by the American Jewish Committee, reports there are currently 5.7 million Jews in the United States, 362,000 in Canada, and 13,191,500 worldwide. More.

Babi & Baha’i faiths: At least 98% of the adherents of the Babi & Baha’i faiths belong to the same church/denomination/religious body, the Baha’i World Faith (or simply “Baha’i Faith”) with headquarters in Haifa, Israel. One might think that this should make Baha’i records fairly straightforward and easily obtainable. But statistical practices differ in each country and figures are not always released to the public. Most recent published estimates of the world Baha’i population are about 6.5 million. This is the figure provided in current Baha’i publications. A recent, updated estimate in the 1998 Encyclopedia Britannica is reportedly 7.67 million, higher than any Baha’i-provided figure we have seen. The accuracy of all of these figures is difficult to determine, and the organization does not provide a breakdown of membership data for each country.

As with most religious groups, organizationally reported adherent counts include significant numbers of nominal members, or people who no longer actively participate, yet still identify themselves as adherents. There are valid arguments that some of the “mass conversions” have resulted in adherents with little or no acculturation into the new religious system. As is typical with a religious group made up primarily of converts, Baha’is who drift from active participation in the movement are less likely to retain nominal identification with the religion — because it was not the religion of their parents or the majority religion of the surrounding culture. On the other hand, there are no countries in which people are automatically assigned to the Baha’i Faith at birth (as is the case with Islam, Christianity, Shinto, Buddhism, and other faiths), so their numbers aren’t inflated with people who have never willingly participated in or been influenced by the religion while adults.

On balance, while official Baha’i figures are not a measure of active participants, the proportion of participating adherents among claimed adherents is thought to be higher than average among the “major religions” on this list. The Baha’i community is remarkably active and influential in religious matters on both global and local levels, especially given their relatively small numbers compared to some other religions. More.

Jainism: The highest published figure we’ve seen for Jainism is 10 million, but this is clearly incorrect. Almost all estimates for the world population are under 5 million. This religion is almost entirely confined to India and to ethnic Jains. It’s importance historically and philosophically far outstrips its relatively small number of adherents. More.

Shinto: Shinto is one of the “classic” eleven or twelve “major world religions.” But adherent counts for this religion are problematic and often misunderstood. In a nutshell, Shinto is simply the indigenous ethnic practice of Japan and its importance is almost entirely historical and cultural, not contemporary. The number of adherents of Shinto are often reported as being around 100 million, or around 75 to 90% of the Japanese population. These figures come from the Shukyo Nenkan (Religions Yearbook), put out by the Ministry of Education & Bureau of Statistics, and they obtain their figures by asking religious bodies for statistics. The Shinto religious bodies have on record most Japanese citizens because of laws established in the 17th Century which required registration with the Shinto shrines. Essentially everybody within local “shrine districts” were counted as adherents. This is comparable to certain Catholic and Protestant nations in Europe where the majority of people have been Christianed or otherwise counted as a member of the state church, but where large proportions of the population are non-practicing.

The difference is that in those European countries, those people are at least nominally adherents of the religion that claims them. “Nominally” here means if asked their religion, they can recall the name of the church they were baptized into as an infant, and don’t mind citing that as their religious preference. In Japan, the majority of adherents of Shinto, as claimed by the Shinto organizations, don’t even consider themselves adherents, even nominally. In polls, only about 3.3% of the Japanese people give Shinto as their religion. A high world-wide figure for people who consider themselves primarily practitioners of Shinto would be about 4 million. Certainly most Japanese people participate in holidays which have Shinto roots, but in this list we are trying to track self-identification, not general vestigial influence. Also, the strongest active religions which have Shinto roots (such as Tenrikyo) no longer claim to be “branches” of Shinto, and can be listed separately.

Zoroastrianism: This religion is in every major comparative religion text book, yet during the 1990s and for a few years thereafter it was actually listed in the Guiness Book of World Records as the “major religion nearest extinction.” The Zoroastrians (or “Parsis”) are sometimes credited with being the first monotheists and having had significant influence in the formation of current, larger world religions. To whatever degree that is true, some observers believed Zoroastrianism was in a precarious state and its position as a “major” contemporary world religion was tenuous. Prior to some increased reforms, most Zoroastrians did not believe in allowing conversion. They had even stricter rules than Jews about whether or not children of mixed marriages would be considered Zoroastrians. Until about 2002, most published estimates for the world total of Zoroastrians were 100 to 125 thousand. More recent publications of many major encyclopedias an world alamanacs include population estimates of 2 to 3.5 million. The government of India has actively encouraged the growth of its Zoroastrian population. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and subsequent U.S.-led intervention in the Middle East, the Parsees of Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan have been receiving less persecution than before, and have been less reticent about identifying themselves, and there seems to be an increased respect for and interest in this classical Persian religion which was once one of the largest in the world. The current estimate posted on this page of millions of Zoroastrians in the world (rather than 100,000 to 150,000) is still under evaluation. The number does not represent an exponential explosion the number of actual Zoroastrians (although there has been some growth in numbers), but is a result of re-evaluation of the existing population. The majority of the world’s Zoroastrians are Parsees who now thought to live in the Middle East. Years of suppression under Muslim-dominated cultures and governments has doubtless led to erosion in some aspects of their community, relative to their co-religionists in India and even among expatriate populations in places such as the United States and the United Kingdom – places with far greater levels of continuous religious freedom.

Cao Dai: Most of the figures for this group are around 2 million, but we’ve seen some that say around 8 million. It’s almost entirely a Vietnamese movement, and not even as important there as it used to be. The official Cao Dai website states that there are about 6 million adherents worldwide, and elsewhere states that there are 5 million in Vietnam, but points out that the religion is largely paralyzed there due to repression by the government.

Tenrikyo: The description of Tenrikyo on the Tenrikyo University website (http://www.tenri-u.ac.jp/en/history/tenrikyo.html) states: “Tenrikyo has spread throughout Japan and also to various countries around the world. At present, there are about two million followers and more than 17,000 churches. Moreover, churches and mission centers have been established in about 30 countries around the world.” It has missions all over the world and a strong evangelical ethic. Outside of Japan the countries with the most adherents seem to be the U.S. (especially Hawaii), South Korea, Brazil, and Taiwan, although only in Japan do Tenris make up an appreciable proportion of a country’s total population. In January 1999 Tenrikyo published country-by-country statistics showing nearly 1,000 churches or mission stations outside of Japan (in over 30 different countries), and over 37,000 in Japan. These figures dwarf the international statistics of some “classical world religions,” such as Zoroastrianism and Jainism.

Tenrikyo is probably one of the largest, most fully-developed independent modern religious systems which most Westerners know nothing about. Tenrikyo offers impressive opportunities for sociological, historical and comparative religion research which are relatively unexplored by the academic community. One of the most famous modern adherents of Tenrikyo was the author Avram Davidson. More

Scientology: One often sees Scientology listed in books and newspapers as having over 8 million adherents. Where does this figure come from? It comes from the Church of Scientology, just as most church membership figures come from churches themselves. Our data indicate that they cite this figure because it is the total number of people who have participated in Church of Scientology activities since the inception of the church. But their figure does not include people who have only received services from their drug rehab groups and other non-Church facilities. Narconon’s clientele are not counted as Church members unless and until they become Scientologists. As Narconon’s mission is drug rehabilitation and not Church recruitment, the percentage of Narconon clients who become Church members is small.

The latest edition of the organization’s publication What Is Scientology? lists 373 churches and missions (plus hundreds of “related organizations” which are not directly comparable to congregations) in 129 countries. (Four new countries, for a total of 133, have been opened since the publication of the book, according to a church spokesperson.) According to church officials, this publication states that in 1997 the number of people who participated in Scientology services for the first time was 642,596 internationally and that the circulation of internal Church magazines which are sent to their members was 6,630,000. Hartley Patterson, a critic of Scientology, has speculated that the circulation figure may be based on the total press run for three publications.

Adherents.com has no argument with Scientology statistics, but for the purposes of this list of “Major Religions of the World Ranked by Size,” we use a different standard of counting adherents than they have used to arrive at their 8 million figure. (Figures presented here are generally estimates of primary, self-identified religious affiliation.) There are not 8 million people who, if taking a survey, would name Scientology as their religious preference. One might generously estimate up to one million worldwide, but the actual number who would fit this criterion is probably under a half million. Adding up organizationally-reported membership on a state-by-state, country-by-country basis would yield a current membership figure of about 750,000, according to a church critic. As with all religions, the complete body of adherents represent a spectrum of participation, including fully active members as well as non-attending or disengaged sympathizers.

Realistically, a figure lower than 750,000 seems be more reasonable for this page’s listing. Some documents suggest that even the tabulation of 750,000 based on country-by-country/state-by-state organizationally-provided data is quite out of date. Internal documents suggest 100,000 active members — which would easily yield an estimate of a total of 600,000 or more, including one-time members, lapsed members, and strong supporters.

This might cause some people to think the church’s figures are inaccurate, or it might seem like we are being harsh to ignore their figure and estimate such a low one. To put these figures into perspective, compare them to those of other major religions. There is no reason to believe that less than 8 million people have willingly participated in Scientology activities and actively studied at least some of its teachings. Large numbers of people have derived benefit from participation in church activities and church-sponsored programs. But people rarely call themselves Scientologists mainly because their parents don’t call themselves Scientologists. Membership in the Church of Scientology does not necessarily preclude membership in another religious organization. A percentage of the claimed members will indeed affirm membership in the organization, while at the same time citing another religion as their primary religious preference.

If one eliminated from the total number of Christians in the world all those who are counted as Christians only because they identify themselves as such in a survey or census, even though they never actually attend Christian services, study Christian literature, or make behavioral changes based on Christian teachings beyond general societal norms, one might obtain a similar downgrade in actual number of effective adherents.

Despite such a “downgrade” from official Church of Scientology estimates, it may be noted that in a recent large-scale independent survey of religious identification (NSRI, Barry Kosmin et al, City University of New York 1990), enough people in the United States named Scientology as religion that it was among the top 10 largest religions in the country, with more members than the Baha’i Faith, Sikhism or Neo-Pagan/Wiccan groups. Independent sources indicate that the strongest communities of Scientologists are in California and the United Kingdom, as well as in Clearwater, Florida (where the main training center is located).

Some people have commented on the fact that this page lists an estimate of 500,000 (previously 750,000) Scientologists worldwide, while the Religion in the U.S. web page refers to 45,000 Scientologists in the U.S. Some people have mistakenly concluded that this means the overwhelming majority of Scientologists live outside the U.S., or that one of the figures is simply “wrong.” The two figures are not directly comparable. Simply put, these two figures are from different sources and are based on different methodologies and critera. The U.S. figure of 45,000 comes directly from the Kosmin NSRI survey of 1990. The worldwide figure is as a conglomerate figure, using different criteria (as explained elsewhere on this page), based on official organizational as well as critical sources. The larger figure would include lapsed members, as well as people who are are adherents of Scientology, but also identify with another religious group, and name that group in a survey or census.

Unitarian-Universalism: Being completely opposed to fixed doctrine (which they refer to as “dogma”), but affirming certain principles, the Unitarian Universalists (or simply “Unitarians” as they prefer to be called in some countries) are quite different from other major religions. Since 1995 the primary UU organization has affirmed officially that it is not a subset of Christianity (although its roots are Christian), but encompasses spirituality from all the major world religions as well as primal-indigenous/tribal faiths. But it should be kept in mind that there are self-avowed Christian Unitarians, Buddhist Unitarians, Pagan Unitarians, etc. In 1990, 500,000 Americans claimed to be Unitarian-Universalists, three times the official organizational count of enrolled members, loosely indicating that Unitarian-Universalism is the general preferred philosophy of far more people than actually participate in or contribute to the congregations and organizations. More.

Rastafarian: Because of the loosely-organized structure of Rastafarianism, and because many Rastafarians are nominal but non-participating members of larger religious groups, precise size estimates are difficult. We’ve seen total world estimates of about 200,000. We’ve seen an estimate of 700,000 in a couple of places. Leonard E. Barrett, author of The Rastafarians, estimates there are 800,000 Rastas worldwide, more than 2 million if one counts followers of the lifestyle but not the faith. Based on other data we believe a figure as high as this would have to include many Jamaicans who are strong Rastafarian supporters or enthusiasts, but who are also at least partially or nominally adherents of mainstream Protestant and Catholic denominations as well.

There are multiple reasons why Rastafarians are typically not counted as one of the major world religions: They are relatively new, having originated only in this century. They aren’t particularly widespread worldwide. (They are mostly in Caribbean nations, esp. Jamaica, as well as the United Kingdom and the U.S.) They are sometimes classified as a Christian sect because they use the Bible as their primary religious text (but they generally use the Hebrew Bible). They are smaller than religious groups usually listed as “major world religions.”

Neo-Paganism: Neo-Paganism is an umbrella term for modern revivals of ancient ethnic and magickal traditions. These are usually polytheistic, but many Neo-Pagans consider their faith pantheistic, and many other concepts of deity can be found among Neo-Pagans as well. Subdivisions within Neo-Paganism include Wicca, Magick, Druidism, Asatru, neo-Native American religion and others.

Only recently has Neo-Paganism become a movement of any significant size and visibility. Solid statistics on Neo-Paganism on a worldwide scale are essentially non-existent, but it is a rapidly growing religion/religious category. Estimates regarding its worldwide size range widely–from under one hundred thousand to over four million. Independent surveys and government-based figures are not indicative of the higher estimates provided by Neo-Pagan and Wiccan organizations, but there may be a variety of reasons for this.

There are two reasons why some might argue that Neo-Paganism should not be listed as a major religion on this page: 1) It might be said that Neo-Paganism is not a single religion, but an umbrella term for many disparate religions. But upon closer examination of the movement, one finds that despite drawing upon such disparate sources as European witchcraft, Norse mythology, Druidism, and Egyptian, Greek, and Native American ancient religions, Neo-Pagans as a whole have a remarkably cohesive, identifiable culture and generally shared value set, even more so than religions such as Christianity, Islam or Judaism when taken as a whole. 2) It could also be said that Neo-Paganism could be classified as a subset of primal-indigenous religion. Though it has roots in primal ethnic religions, Neo-Paganism is something distinct, clearly drawing much of its identity from Gardnerian principles introduced in the 1930s. Neo-Paganism is distinct from the primal ethnic religions of ancient pre-industrial societies just as Buddhism has roots in, but is distinct from, Hinduism. So we are including Neo-Paganism on this list because the most recent sociological work in the field indicates it is a distinct religion, and because it is increasingly significant.

There were 768,400 Neo-pagans (largest subset were Wiccans) in the U.S. in the year 2000, according to the Wiccan/Pagan Poll, conducted by the Covenant of the Goddess (CoG) beginning in late July, 1999. [Online source: http://www.cog.org/cogpoll_final.html%5D Researchers may also be interested in Isaac Bonewits’ succinct web page, How Many “Pagans” Are There? Bonewits identifies reasons for enumeration, difficulties in doing so, and concludes by estimating the Neopagan population at “from half a million to several million people in the USA and Canada.”

Groups Not Included in This List of World Religions
The following groups are religions, but have not been included in this list of major religions primarily for one or more of the following reasons:

* They are not a distinct, independent religion, but a branch of a broader religion/category.
* They lack appreciable communities of adherents outside their home country.
* They are too small (even smaller than Rastafarianism).

Mandeans: The Encyclopedia Britannica lists Mandeans separately, but they only have about 45,000 adherents in two countries, meaning they’re far smaller than many new religious movements the Encyclopedia lumps together under “New Religionists.” As small as the Mandeans are, we are not listing them as one of the largest “Major Religions.” Britannica’s decision to list Mandeans separately, while not listing larger but newer religions is due the their list’s criteria, which emphasizes long-established yet post-literate religions. This Adherents.com listing, on the other hand, is based on contemporary size, without regard to age.

PL Kyodan: They currently claim about 1 million adherents and 500 churches in 10 countries. But they’re almost entirely in Japan. The group has a few branches in North America and Europe, and perhaps twenty in South America. So there is some spread beyond its home country, but with only about 500 branches worldwide, and with some question as to whether it has really emerged from it’s original Shinto matrix, it may be inappropriate to call it a distinct major religion.

Ch’ondogyo: About 3 million adherents total. Their numbers are almost entirely confined to Korea, however. Apparently a fusion of Christianity and traditional Korean religion. In North Korea, once Ch’ondogyo’s center, where it was, for a time, the country’s second or third largest religion, it has essentially been co-opted by the government and turned into a hollow appendage of Juche.

Wonbulgyo: Another new Korean religion. The claim about 400 branches in Korea, and 30 in North America and Europe. They make some claims to be an emerging world religion, but as they call themselves “Won Buddhism,” we include them within the greater body of Buddhism. Lively, but probably less than 150,000 adherents, making it even smaller than Zoroastrianism.

Vodoun: Vodoun is classified here as a subset of African diasporic religion.

New Age: New Age is an incredibly eclectic category, not a single religion. Although a large number of people hold beliefs which have been categorized as New Age, or participate in New Age practices, only a tiny percentage of people actually identify “New Age” as their religion. At this point “New Age” is more the umbrella term for a broad movement, rather than a religion. Some previous enthusiasts of New Age movements now prefer to be called pagans or Neo-Pagans.

Seicho-No-Ie: This organization is large (perhaps 2 to 3 million members) and appears somewhat like a typical New Asian syncretistic religion, but its literature states that it is an interdenominational organization and not a religion. Furthermore, it does not seem to have spawned a distinctive religious culture anywhere outside of Japan, and perhaps not even in Japan — certainly not to the degree that groups such as PL Kyodan and Tenrikyo have.

Falun Dafa/Falun Gong: This is a relatively new movement (started in the mid-1980s) from China which purports to have 100 million adherents worldwide, 70 million in China. These numbers are obviously inflated; it is not true that 1 in every 58 people on the planet are adherents of Falun Dafa. A reasonable worldwide number that some newspapers have used is 10 million, but this is only a guess. The current crackdown on the movement by the Communist government is likely to increase the movement’s growth both within and outside of China. Its status as a full-fledged “religion” is questionable, and it does not claim to be one in the traditional sense. For most practitioners it is more of a technique than a religion. However, the movement’s literature states that deriving full benefit from the techniques precludes membership in other religions, and there are people who consider Falun Dafa their primary or only religion. But exclusive followers of this sort are in the minority.

Furthermore, Falun Dafa is properly classified as a subset of Chinese traditional religion and not as a distinct religion, so it would not be classified as a “major world religion” even if it did have 100 million followers. Although the movement is verifiably large and widespread, its adherents appear to be almost uniformly ethnic Chinese. Their involvement with the movement is not really conversion to a different or foreign religion, but rather involvement in an evangelical/reform movement within their existing religious system. Sociologically, the Falun Dafa movement has many parallels to the Pentecostal movement and Billy Graham revivals within Christianity.

Taoism: Included as a subset of Chinese traditional religion because of the impossibility of separating a large number of Taoists from traditional Chinese religionists in general. See note under Chinese traditional religion.

Confucianism: See Chinese traditional religion.

Roma: There are an estimated 9 to 12 million Roma (Gypsies; also “Rroma”) in the world, concentrated in Europe, but also in North America, Australia and elsewhere. There is clearly a distinct set of Roma religious beliefs and practices, which scholars frequently describe as Aryan/Indian/Hindu in origin with an overlay of local (esp. European) religious culture (often Catholic). But the Roma are primarily classified as an ethnic or cultural group. Many clearly have a strong ethnic identity as Roma and a self-identified religious identity as Catholic or Protestant. The Roma illustrate how arbitrary the dividing lines between ethnicity, culture, and religion can be.

Animal Rights: Although the Animal Rights movement (along with ethical vegetarianism, Veganism, PETA, etc.) is a large and rapidly growing socio-cultural-religious group, its proponents do not generally call it their “religion.” Reliable statistics for the number of adherents for whom Animal Rights constitutes primary cultural/religious/philosophical identity, versus those who simply support certain positions of the movement, are unavailable. AR is a religion, but for the majority of Animal Rights supporters, AR functions as a movement and/or lifestyle choice, not their primary religion. (This is similar to the current broad support for the “Free Tibet” movement, most of which comes from non-Buddhists.)

Other movements and groups which are not listed on this page but which function as the sociological equivalent of traditionally recognized religions are listed here. Please feel free to send comments, questions, adherent statistics, spelling corrections, etc. to webmaster@adherents.com.

Webpage created circa January 2000. Last modified 9 August 2007.
Copyright © 2007 by Adherents.com.

tentang doa

Dan apabila hamba-hamba-Ku bertanya kepadamu tentang Aku, maka (jawablah), bahwasanya Aku adalah dekat. Aku mengabulkan permohonan orang yang mendoa apabila ia berdoa kepada-Ku, maka hendaklah mereka itu memenuhi (segala perintah) Ku dan hendaklah mereka beriman kepada-Ku, agar mereka selalu berada dalam kebenaran.(QS. 2:186)
::Terjemahan:: ::Tafsir:: ::Asbabun Nuzul::

Tafsir / Indonesia / Sebab turun / Surah Al Baqarah 186
وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِي إِذَا دَعَانِ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ (186)
Diketengahkan oleh Ibnu Jarir, Ibnu Abi Hatim, Ibnu Mardawaih, Abu Syeikh dan lain-lain dari beberapa jalur yakni dari Jarir bin Abdul Hamid, dari Abdah As-Sijistani, dari Shilt bin Hakim bin Muawiyah bin Haidah, dari bapaknya, dari kakeknya, katanya, “Seorang badui datang kepada Nabi saw. lalu tanyanya, ‘Di mana Tuhan kita?’ Maka Allah pun menurunkan, ‘…dan sekiranya hamba-hamba-Ku…’ sampai akhir ayat.” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah 186). Hadis ini mursal, tetapi ia mempunyai jalur-jalur lain. Dikeluarkan oleh Ibnu Asakir dari Ali, ia berkata bahwa Rasulullah saw. bersabda, “Janganlah kamu merasa bosan berdoa, karena Allah menurunkan kepadaku, ‘Memohonlah kepada-Ku, niscaya Aku kabulkan doamu!’ (Q.S. Ghafir, 60). Seorang lelaki bertanya, ‘Wahai Rasulullah! Apakah Tuhan kita mendengar doa kita? Atau bagaimana?’ Allah pun menurunkan, ‘Dan sekiranya hamba-hamba-Ku bertanya kepadamu tentang Aku…’ sampai akhir ayat.” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah 186). Dan diketengahkan oleh Ibnu Jarir dari Atha bin Abu Rabah bahwa ketika ayat itu turun dan Tuhanmu berfirman, “Mohonlah kepada-Ku, niscaya Aku kabulkan permohonanmu”, ada yang mengatakan, “Kita tidak tahu kapan saatnya kita memohon itu, maka turunlah ayat, ‘Dan sekiranya hamba-hamba-Ku menanyakan kepadamu tentang Aku…’ sampai akhir ayat.” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah 186).

Salahuddin Ayyubi

Salahuddin Ayyubi
Dari Wikipedia Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas berbahasa Indonesia.
Langsung ke: navigasi, cari
Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi
Sultan Mesir dan Syria
caption
Lukisan artistik Shalahuddin
Memerintah 1174 M. – 4 Maret-1193 M.
Dinobatkan 1174 M.
Nama lengkap Yusuf Ayyubi
Lahir 1138 M. di Tikrit, Iraq
Meninggal 4 Maret-1193 M. di Damaskus, Syria
Dikuburkan Masjid Umayyah, Damaskus, Syria
Pendahulu Nur ad-Din
Pengganti Al-Aziz
Dynasty Ayyubid
Ayah Najm ad-Din Ayyub

Untuk kegunaan lain dari Salahuddin, lihat Sultan Salahuddin.

Salahuddin Ayyubi atau Saladin atau Salah ad-Din (Bahasa Arab: صلاح الدين الأيوبي, Kurdi: صلاح الدین ایوبی) (Sho-lah-huud-din al-ay-yu-bi) (c. 1138 – 4 Maret 1193) adalah seorang jendral dan pejuang muslim Kurdi dari Tikrit (daerah utara Irak saat ini). Ia mendirikan Dinasti Ayyubiyah di Mesir, Suriah, sebagian Yaman, Irak, Mekkah Hejaz dan Diyar Bakr. Salahuddin terkenal di dunia Muslim dan Kristen karena kepemimpinan, kekuatan militer, dan sifatnya yang ksatria dan pengampun pada saat ia berperang melawan tentara salib. Sultan Salahuddin Al Ayyubi juga adalah seorang ulama. Beliau memberikan catatan kaki dan berbagai macam penjelasan dalam kitab hadits Abu Dawud
Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

* 1 Latar belakang
* 2 Naik ke kekuasaan
* 3 Lihat Pula
* 4 Pranala luar
* 5 Referensi

[sunting] Latar belakang

Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi berasal dari bangsa Kurdi[1] . Ayahnya Najmuddin Ayyub dan pamannya Asaduddin Syirkuh hijrah (migrasi) meninggalkan kampung halamannya dekat Danau Fan dan pindah ke daerah Tikrit (Irak). Shalahuddin lahir di benteng Tikrit, Irak tahun 532 H/1137 M, ketika ayahnya menjadi penguasa Seljuk di Tikrit. Saat itu, baik ayah maupun pamannya mengabdi kepada Imaduddin Zanky, gubernur Seljuk untuk kota Mousul, Irak. Ketika Imaduddin berhasil merebut wilayah Balbek, Lebanon tahun 534 H/1139 M, Najmuddin Ayyub (ayah Shalahuddin) diangkat menjadi gubernur Balbek dan menjadi pembantu dekat Raja Suriah Nuruddin Mahmud. Selama di Balbek inilah, Shalahuddin mengisi masa mudanya dengan menekuni teknik perang, strategi, maupun politik. Setelah itu, Shalahuddin melanjutkan pendidikannya di Damaskus untuk mempelajari teologi Sunni selama sepuluh tahun, dalam lingkungan istana Nuruddin. Pada tahun 1169, Shalahudin diangkat menjadi seorang wazir (konselor).

Di sana, dia mewarisi peranan sulit mempertahankan Mesir melawan penyerbuan dari Kerajaan Latin Jerusalem di bawah pimpinan Amalrik I. Posisi ia awalnya menegangkan. Tidak ada seorangpun menyangka dia bisa bertahan lama di Mesir yang pada saat itu banyak mengalami perubahan pemerintahan di beberapa tahun belakangan oleh karena silsilah panjang anak khalifah mendapat perlawanan dari wazirnya. Sebagai pemimpin dari prajurit asing Syria, dia juga tidak memiliki kontrol dari Prajurit Shiah Mesir, yang dipimpin oleh seseorang yang tidak diketahui atau seorang Khalifah yang lemah bernama Al-Adid. Ketika sang Khalifah meninggal bulan September 1171, Saladin mendapat pengumuman Imam dengan nama Al-Mustadi, kaum Sunni, dan yang paling penting, Abbasid Khalifah di Baghdad, ketika upacara sebelum Shalat Jumat, dan kekuatan kewenangan dengan mudah memecat garis keturunan lama. Sekarang Saladin menguasai Mesir, tapi secara resmi bertindak sebagai wakil dari Nur ad-Din, yang sesuai dengan adat kebiasaan mengenal Khalifah dari Abbasid. Saladin merevitalisasi perekonomian Mesir, mengorganisir ulang kekuatan militer, dan mengikuti nasihat ayahnya, menghindari konflik apapun dengan Nur ad-Din, tuannya yang resmi, sesudah dia menjadi pemimpin asli Mesir. Dia menunggu sampai kematian Nur ad-Din sebelum memulai beberapa tindakan militer yang serius: Pertama melawan wilayah Muslim yang lebih kecil, lalu mengarahkan mereka melawan para prajurit salib.
Timur Tengah (1190 M.). Wilayah kekuasaan Shalahuddin (warna merah); Wilayah yang direbut kembali dari pasukan salib 1187-1189 (warna pink). Warna hijau terang menandakan wilayah pasukan salib yang masih bertahan sampai meninggalnya Shalahuddin
Timur Tengah (1190 M.). Wilayah kekuasaan Shalahuddin (warna merah); Wilayah yang direbut kembali dari pasukan salib 1187-1189 (warna pink). Warna hijau terang menandakan wilayah pasukan salib yang masih bertahan sampai meninggalnya Shalahuddin

Dengan kematian Nur ad-Din (1174) dia menerima gelar Sultan di Mesir. Disana dia memproklamasikan kemerdekaan dari kaum Seljuk, dan dia terbukti sebagai penemu dari dinasti Ayyubid dan mengembalikan ajaran Sunni ke Mesir. Dia memperlebar wilayah dia ke sebelah barat di maghreb, dan ketika paman dia pergi ke Nil untuk mendamaikan beberapa pemberontakan dari bekas pendukung Fatimid, dia lalu melanjutkan ke Laut Merah untuk menaklukan Yaman. Dia juga disebut Waliullah yang artinya teman Allah bagi kaum muslim Sunni.

Dari usia belasan tahun Shalahuddin selalu bersama ayahnya di medan pertempuran melawan Tentara Perang Salib atau menumpas para pemberontakan terhadap pemimpinnya Sultan Nuruddin Mahmud. Ketika Nuruddin berhasil merebut kota Damaskus tahun pada tahun 549 H/1154 M maka keduanya ayah dan anak telah menunjukkan loyalitas yang tinggi kepada pemimpinnya.

Dalam tiga pertempuran di Mesir bersama-sama pamannya Asaduddin melawan Tentara Perang Salib dan berhasil mengusirnya dari Mesir pada tahun 559-564 H/ 1164-1168 M. Sejak itu Asaduddin, pamannya diangkat menjadi Perdana Menteri Khilafah Fathimiyah. Setelah pamnnya meninggal, jabatan Perdana Menteri dipercayakan Khalifah kepada Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi.

Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi berhasil mematahkan serangan Tentara Salib dan pasukan Romawi Bizantium yang melancarkan Perang Salib kedua terhadap Mesir. Sultan Nuruddin memerintahkan Shalahuddin mengambil kekuasaan dari tangan Khilafah Fathimiyah dan mengembalikan kepada Khilafah Abbasiyah di Baghdad mulai tahun 567 H/1171 M (September). Setelah Khalifah Al-‘Adid, khalifah Fathimiyah terakhir meninggal maka kekuasaan sepenuhnya di tangan Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi.

Sultan Nuruddin meninggal tahun 659 H/1174 M, Damaskus diserahkan kepada puteranya yang masih kecil Sultan Salih Ismail didampingi seorang wali. Dibawah seorang wali terjadi perebutan kekuasaan diantara putera-putera Nuruddin dan wilayah kekuasaan Nurruddin menjadi terpecah-pecah. Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi pergi ke Damaskus untuk membereskan keadaan, tetapi ia mendapat perlawanan dari pengikut Nuruddin yang tidak menginginkan persatuan. Akhirnya Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi melawannya dan menyatakan diri sebagai raja untuk wilayah Mesir dan Syam pada tahun 571 H/1176 M dan berhasil memperluas wilayahnya hingga Mousul, Irak bagian utara.

[sunting] Naik ke kekuasaan

Di kemudian hari Saladin menjadi wazir pada 1169, dan menerima tugas sulit mempertahankan Mesir dari serangan Raja Latin Yerusalem, khususnya Amalric I. Kedudukannya cukup sulit pada awalnya, sedikit orang yang beranggapan ia akan berada cukup lama di Mesir mengingat sebelumnya telah banyak terjadi pergantian pergantian kekuasaan dalam beberapa tahun terakhir disebabkan bentrok yang terjadi antar anak-anak Kalifah untuk posisi wazir. Sebagai pemimpin dari pasukan asing Suriah, dia juga tidak memiliki kekuasaan atas pasukan Syi’ah Mesir yang masih berada di bawah Khalifah yang lemah, Al-Adid.

[sunting] Lihat Pula

* Kingdom of Heaven
* Raja Richard I dari Inggris
* Guy dari Lusignan
* Nur ad-Din

[sunting] Pranala luar

* Shalahuddin Al Ayyubi, Pahlawan Islam dari Seratus Medan Pertempuran (1137 – 1193 M)
* Salah-ad-Din
* Saladin
* Saladin: several links

[sunting] Referensi

* Alan K. Bowman, Egypt After the Pharaohs: 1986

Artikel mengenai biografi tokoh Islam ini adalah suatu tulisan rintisan. Anda dapat membantu Wikipedia mengembangkannya.
Diperoleh dari “http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salahuddin_Ayyubi&#8221;

Kategori: Rintisan biografi tokoh Islam | Tokoh Islam | Kelahiran 1137 | Kematian 1193 | Perang Salib
Tampilan

* Artikel
* Pembicaraan
* Sunting
* ↑
* Versi terdahulu

Peralatan pribadi

* Masuk log / buat akun

Navigasi

* Halaman Utama
* Portal komunitas
* Peristiwa terkini
* Perubahan terbaru
* Halaman sembarang
* Bantuan
* Donasi
* Warung Kopi

Pencarian

Kotak peralatan

* Pranala balik
* Perubahan terkait
* Pemuatan
* Halaman istimewa
* Versi cetak
* Pranala permanen
* Kutip artikel ini
* Hapus singgahan
* Kontributor halaman
* Subhalaman
* Peta artikel

Bahasa lain

* العربية
* Azərbaycan
* Български
* Brezhoneg
* Bosanski
* Català
* Česky
* Dansk
* Deutsch
* Ελληνικά
* English
* Esperanto
* Español
* Euskara
* فارسی
* Suomi
* Français
* Gaeilge
* Galego
* עברית
* हिन्दी
* Hrvatski
* Íslenska
* Italiano
* 日本語
* 한국어
* Kurdî / كوردی
* Latina
* Limburgs
* Македонски
* Bahasa Melayu
* Nederlands
* ‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬
* ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬
* Polski
* Português
* Română
* Русский
* Sicilianu
* Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски
* Simple English
* Slovenčina
* Slovenščina
* Српски / Srpski
* Svenska
* ไทย
* Türkçe
* Українська
* اردو
* 中文

Powered by MediaWiki
Wikimedia Foundation

* Halaman ini terakhir diubah pada 11:24, 17 September 2007.
* Seluruh teks tersedia sesuai dengan Lisensi Dokumentasi Bebas GNU
Wikipedia® adalah merek dagang terdaftar dari Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
* Kebijakan privasi
* Perihal Wikipedia
* Penyangkalan

WELCOME TO MY BLOG

JIKA ANDA PENGGEMAR MUSIK, PEMERHATI MASALAH EKONOMI,SOSIAL, SENI BUDAYA , AGAMA, POLITIK, HAK AZAZI MANUSIA, PERDAMAIAN DUNIA SILAHKAN KUNJUNGI BLOG SAYA DI : http://blog.360.yahoo.com/erfin234

IF YOU LIKE MUSIC, INTEREST IN SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITIC, RELIGION, HUMAN RIGHT, ART, CULTURE, PEACE YOU CAN SEE IN MY BLOG : http://blog.360.yahoo.com/erfin234