Bush Fuels Oil Conspiracy Theory

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Bush Fuels Oil Conspiracy Theory

By Ted Rall, AlterNet. Posted January 10, 2002.

Some skeptics say that the Afghan war is about oil, not terrorism. By appointing an oil industry insider as “special envoy to Afghanistan,” Bush is fueling their theory.
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Conspiracy theories are funny things: the wackier they sound, the more likely they are to be true. The fires of September were still burning when I, among others, suggested that the Bush regime’s Afghan war might have more to do with old-fashioned oil politics than bringing the Evil Ones to justice.

Little did I know how quickly I would be proven right.

The Taliban government and their Al Qaeda “guests”, after all, both were at best bit players in the terror biz. If the U.S. had really wanted to dispatch a significant number of jihad boys to meet the black-eyed virgins, it would have bombed Pakistan. Instead, the State Department inexplicably cozied up to this snake pit of anti-American extremists, choosing a nation led by a dictator who seized power in an illegal coup as our principal South Asian ally.

Moreover, the American military strategy in Afghanistan — dropping bombs without inserting a significant number of ground troops — all but guaranteed that Osama would live to kill another day.

So the Third Afghan War obviously isn’t about fighting terrorism — leading cynics to conclude that it must be about (yawwwwwwn!) oil. Bush and Cheney were both former oil company execs, after all, and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice was corporate counsel at Chevron. Unbeknownst to most Americans, oil fields dot northern Afghanistan near its border with Turkmenistan. But the real jackpot is under the Caspian Sea. Between confirmed and estimated oil reserves, Kazakhstan is destined to become the world’s largest oil-producing nation, and will one day dwarf even Saudi Arabia.

For the U.S., more production means cheaper oil, lower production and transportation costs, and higher corporate profits. The Kazakhs would be happy to work with us, but their oil is frustratingly landlocked. The shortest and cheapest of all possible pipelines would run from the Caspian to the Persian Gulf via Iran, but lingering American resentment from the 1980 hostage crisis has prevented U.S.-aligned Kazakhstan from getting its crude out to sea. Plan B is a 1996 Unocal scheme for a trans-Afghanistan pipeline that would debouche at the Arabian Sea port of Karachi.

As Zalmay Khalilzad co-wrote in The Washington Quarterly in its Winter 2000 issue, “Afghanistan could prove a valuable corridor for this [Caspian Sea] energy as well as for access to markets in Central Asia.” Khalilzad has an unsavory past. As a State and Defense Department official during the Reagan years, Khalilzad helped supply the anti-Soviet mujihadeen with weapons they’re now using to fight Americans. During the ’90s he worked as Unocal’s chief consultant on its Afghan pipeline scheme.

According to the French daily Libération, Khalilzad’s $200 million project was originally conceived to run 830 miles from Dauletebad in southeastern Turkmenistan to Multan, Pakistan. Multan already possesses a link to Karachi. Partly on Khalilzad’s advice, the Clinton Administration funded the Taliban through Pakistani intelligence, going so far as to pay the salaries of high-ranking Taliban officials. The goal: a strong, stable authoritarian regime in Kabul to ensure the safety of Unocal’s precious oil.

In 1998, after Taliban “guest” Osama bin Laden bombed two American embassies in east Africa, Unocal shelved the plan. Chief consultant Khalilzad moved on to the Rand Corporation think tank. Considering the Taliban irredeemably unreliable, Clinton withdrew U.S. support. But as the newly-minted cliché goes, everything changed after 9-11. Now the Taliban are gone, replaced with a U.S.-installed interim government.

Rising energy prices helped push the economy into recession; perhaps 90-cent gas will work where interest rate cuts failed. Once again, the pipeline plan is hot.

Did Bush exploit the Sept. 11 attacks to justify a Central Asian oil grab? The answer seems clear. On Dec. 31, Bush appointed his special envoy to Afghanistan: Zalmay Khalilzad. “This is a moment of opportunity for Afghanistan,” the former Unocal employee commented upon arrival in Kabul Jan. 5. You bet it is: Pakistan’s Frontier Post reports that U.S. ambassador Wendy Chamberlain met in October with Pakistan’s oil minister to discuss reviving the Unocal project.

And a front-page story in the Jan. 9 New York Times reveals that “the United States is preparing a military presence in Central Asia that could last for years,” including a building permanent air base in the Kyrgyz Republic, formerly part of the Soviet Union. (The Bushies say that they just want to keep an eye on postwar Afghanistan, but few students of the region buy the official story.)

Many industry experts consider Unocal’s revived Afghan adventure fatally flawed and expect the U.S. to ultimately wise up and pursue an Iran deal. But thus far the Bushies have given the conspiracy theorists a lot to think about.

Ted Rall, the cartoonist and columnist, is currently working on the first-ever instant graphic novel, “To Afghanistan and Back,” about his recent experiences covering the Afghan war.

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Saidina Abu Bakar

Saidina Abu Bakar

Dari Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas.

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Sebahagian siri dalam Islam

Sejarah Islam

Ajaran dan Kepercayaan
Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan
Malaikat · Nabi dan Rasul · Kitab · Hari Akhirat · Qadar
Dua Kalimah Shahadah · Solat · Puasa · Mengerjakan Haji · Membayar Zakat dan Fitrah
Tokoh-Tokoh Utama

Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. · Saidina Abu Bakar · Saidina Umar · Saidina Uthman · Saidina Ali
Sahabat Nabi · Imam · Imam Mahdi · Tokoh Islam lain

Kitab & Undang-Undang
al-Qur’an · Hadith · Surah
Mazhab · Syariah
Golongan Islam
Sunah · Syiah · Sufi
Kota Suci Islam

Makkah · Madinah · Baitulmuqaddis

Aspek-Aspek Sosial
Kota Islam · Seni bina
Sains · Tamadun Islam
Kesenian · Takwim Hijrah · Khilafah · Politik Islam · Jihad
Lihat Juga
Rencana mengenai Islam

Saidina Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (Arab ابو بكر الصديق) ialah Khalifah pertama orang Muslim dari tahun 632634. Beliau pada awalnya digelar Abdul Kaabah (hamba Kaabah) tetapi selepas pengislamannya, beliau menukar namanya kepada Abdullah. Namun beliau selalu digelar Abu Bakar (daripada perkataan Arab Bakar yang bermaksud unta muda) kerana beliau amat gemar membiak unta. Beliau amat terkenal dengan gelaran As-Siddiq (yang membenarkan). Nama sebenar beliau ialah Abdullah ibni Abi Quhaafah.

Jadual isi kandungan

[sorok]

//

[Sunting] Kehidupan Awal

Saidina Abu Bakar As-Siddiq merupakan sahabat Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. yang paling rapat sekali. Semasa Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. berhijrah dari Makkah ke Madinah pada tahun 622, hanya beliau seorang yang mengikuti Rasulullah s.a.w. tanpa ditemani oleh orang lain. Rasulullah S.A.W mengahwini anak perempuan beliau iaitu Saidatina Aishah tidak lama selepas penghijrahan ke Madinah berlaku. Pernah menjadi kaya, dia juga dikenangi kerana jasanya membebaskan beberapa hamba yang beragama Islam daripada tuan mereka yang kafir termasuklah Bilal Bin Rabah. Belia juga merupakan salah seorang Muslim yang pertama sekali memeluk Islam.

[Sunting] Menjadi Khalifah Pertama

Semasa Rasulullah s.a.w. sedang sakit tenat, baginda mengarahkan supaya Saidina Abu Bakar mengimamkan solat orang Islam. Selepas kewafatan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w., sebuah majlis yang dihadiri oleh golongan Ansar dan Muhajirin ditubuhkan untuk melantik seorang khalifah bagi memimpin umat Islam. Hasil daripada perjumpaan itu, Saidina Abu Bakar dilantik dan menjadi khalifah pertama umat Islam.

Perlantikan Saidina Abu Bakar mendapat tentangan daripada beberapa orang yang ingin melantik Saidina Ali Abi Talib sebagai khalifah kerana Saidina Ali merupakan menantu dan anak saudara Rasulullah s.a.w. Golongan Syiah yang merupakan golongan daripada keluarga Bani Hashim menentang perlantikan Saidina Abu Bakar. Tentangan itu tamat selepas Saidina Ali Abi Talib membaihkan Saidina Abu Bakar. Ada pendapat mengatakan bahawa Saidina Ali Abi Talib hanya membaihkan Saidina Abu Bakar selepas enam bulan.

[Sunting] Perang Riddah

Masalah mula timbul apabila Saidina Abu Bakar dilantik menjadi khalifah. Masalah ini mengugat kestabilan dan keamanan kerajaan Islam. Banyak puak-puak Arab memberontak dan menentang khalifah. Sesetengah daripada mereka enggan membayar zakat manakala ada pula yang kembali kepada menyembah berhala dan mengikut tradisi lama mereka. Puak-puak ini mendakwa bahawa mereka hanya menurut perintah Rasulullah s.a.w. dan memandangkan Rasulullah s.a.w. telah wafat maka mereka tidak perlu lagi mengikut ajaran Islam dan mereka telah bebas.

Saidina Abu Bakar menegaskan bahawa mereka bukan sahaja menyatakan taat sembah kepada seorang pemimpin malah mereka kini tergolong dalam golongan Muslim. Ada diantara mereka mendakwa bahawa mereka ialah nabi dan rasul. Bagi menumpaskan penghinaan dan perbuatan murtad ini maka Saidina Abu Bakar melancarkan perang terhadap golongan yang digelar golongan Riddah. Hal ini merupakan permulaan Perang Riddah. Antara orang yang mengaku menjadi nabi ialah Musailimah. Khalid Al-Walid berjaya menumpaskan Musailimah dalam suatu pertempuran.

[Sunting] Ekspedisi ke Utara

Selepas berjaya mengurangkan golongan riddah, Syaidina Abu Bakar mula menghantar panglima-panglima perang Islam ke utara untuk memerangi Byzantine (Rom Timur) dan Empayar Parsi. Khalid Al-Walid berjaya menawan Iraq dalam hanya satu kempen ketenteraan. Beliau juga menempuh kejayaan dalam beberapa ekspedisi ke Syria. Menurut seorang orientalis Barat, kempen Saidina Abu Bakar hanyalah sebuah lanjutan daripada Perang Riddah. Hal ini jelas salah memandangkan kebanyakan golongan riddah terletak di selatan Semenanjung Arab dan bukannya di utara.

[Sunting] Pengumpulan Al Quran

Menurut ahli sejarah Islam, selepas Perang Riddah ramai orang yang mahir menghafaz Al Quran terbunuh. Saidina Umar Al-Khatab (khalifah yang berikutnya) meminta Saidina Abu Bakar untuk mula menjalankan aktviti pengumpulan semula ayat-ayat Al Quran. Saidina Uthman Affan kemudiannya melengkapkan aktiviti pengumpulan Al Quran semasa beliau menjadi khalifah.

[Sunting] Kewafatan Saidina Abu Bakar As-Siddiq

Saidina Abu Bakar wafat pada 23 Ogos 634 di Madinah iaitu dua tahun selepas menjadi khalifah. Ada dua pendapat mengenai sebab kematian Saidina Abu Bakar. Ada yang mengatakan disebabkan keracunan dan ada pula yang mengatakan Saidina Abu Bakar meninggal dunia secara biasa. Sebelum kewafatannya, Saidina Abu Bakar mengesa masyarakat menerima Saidina Umar Al-Khatab sebagai khalifah yang baru.

Saidina Abu Bakar dikebumikan di sebelah makam Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. di Masjid an-Nabawi yang terletak di Madinah.

[Sunting] Sumbangan Saidina Abu Bakar

Saidina Abu Bakar walaupun hanya memerintah selama dua tahun (632-634), tetapi beliau banyak menyumbang terhadap perkembangan Islam. Beliau berjaya menumpaskan golongan Riddah yang ada diantaranya murtad dan ada diantaranya mengaku sebagai nabi. Beliau juga mula mengumpulkan ayat-ayat Al Quran dan beliau juga berjaya meluaskan pengaruh Islam.

[Sunting] Lihat juga

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